amazon aws – Should a digital agency use one EC2 instance for multiple client websites or use one EC2 per client website

I’ve recently started a digital agency of my own after working at them for a number of years and looking into using AWS for my website and email hosting needs.

From looking at AWS’s website, I can see that hosting emails for my clients is easily achievable by using their AWS WorkMail product. However, I’m struggling to see what the best solution is for hosting multiple websites of various sizes and traffic for each of my clients.

Taking cost, maintenance, individual scalability and monitoring into consideration, is it best to create one powerful EC2 instance and host multiple websites on it or is best to create an EC2 for each of my clients’ websites regardless of how big the website is?

I’m seeing so many articles on ‘how to host multiple websites on one EC2’ which is what’s confusing me but I can’t see the value of this unless a business has a number of small websites under its roof.

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uk citizens – What happens if a UK digital passport photo is rejected?

My situation: I’ve applied online for a replacement UK passport after losing my passport.

For various (irrelevant) reasons I’m convinced that the digital photo I used will be rejected. What happens if that’s the case? Will I need to restart the entire procedure? Will it be as simple as changing my photo?

Are there reasons to use colour filters with digital cameras?

It depends. Especially when producing images that are viewed in monochrome/B&W.

If digital sensors had unlimited dynamic range it wouldn’t matter so much, but we all know that they are limited by their noise floor.

By using the color filter at the time you shoot, you can reduce a particular color channel that might otherwise be blown out while still preserving the brightness of the other two color channels. For instance, if the scene has a lot more brightness in the red channel than I want in the final image I can use a green filter to reduce the amount of red without reducing the green (and to a lesser extent the blue) as well. The green filter might also allow me to expose so that the greens and blues are even brighter while still keeping the reds below full saturation.

But today, with digital cameras, would I just instead shoot in color, apply the yellow filter in post (or whatever other color filters I want), and then convert the image to black and white?

Not exactly. Digital filters don’t always work the same way that actual physical filters do, and so they don’t always give the same results. You may be able to get very close, but there’s still no substitute for using actual filters if you’re planning on presenting the image with a particular balance between certain colors and the gray tones they produce in monochrome.

With most general raw converters that have a dedicated “Monochrome” tab, the number and color of filters that can be applied are usually fairly limited. The available choices usually might be something like Red→Orange→Yellow→None→Green. But you often can’t alter the density/strength of a specific filter color. If you want a specific color between these choices, or say you want a blue filter, you’re often out of luck.

Dedicated B&W/Monochrome editing applications or plugins like Nik’s Silver Efex Pro or Topaz B&W Effects often add many more choices including specific filters in varying strengths. They may even be labeled by the names of their analog counterparts e.g. Lee #8 Yellow or B&W Light Red 090. But they still act upon light after it has been recorded by your sensor, rather than before. So the limitations of a camera’s dynamic range will limit, to one degree or another, how close to using an actual filter you can get by doing it in post processing.

What you set for color temperature and fine tuning along the Blue←→Yellow and Magenta←→Green axes will have an effect, but it won’t always be the same as using a color filter would. When you adjust the color temperature pretty much all of the colors are shifted in one direction or another. Color filters are much more selective about which colors are affected. You could use the Hue Saturation Luminance (HSL) tool in many post processing applications to fine tune a little more, but you’ve still unnecessarily limited your camera’s dynamic range more than you would by applying the filter to the light before exposure so that you can utilize more of your camera’s dynamic range only on the light that you want to capture.

You can reduce contrast in post, for example, to mimic the effect of a blue filter but it may not give you the exact same effect. Again, you are also sacrificing dynamic range by applying the filter to the digital information after it was recorded rather than to the light before it was recorded.

sensor – How does long exposure photography work on digital cameras?

As far as I know a sensor can’t “be exposed” for a long period of time

That is wrong, you can’t capture an image at an “exact monent”. An image whether film or digital is formed by photons hitting a sensor over an exposure period. In the case of a film camera the photons cause chemical changes. In the case of a digital camera they create electron-hole pairs which produce electric charges on a semiconductor junction.

The exposure period on a film camera is defined by a mechanical shutter. On a digital camera it may be defined either by a mechanical shutter or electronically by the timings used to reset and readout the sensor.

The challenge with long exposures on digital sensors is that digital sensors are relatively noisy. As well as photoelectrically generated electron/hole pairs there are also thermally generated electron/hole pairs. Many cameras will perform dark frame subtraction which helps with this but doesn’t entirely solve the problem. In the serious astronomy world Cryogenic CCDs are sometimes used to reduce noise but they are impractical for regular portable cameras.

Sometimes stacked exposures are also used, the main advantage of stacked exposures over a single long exposure is that you can throw out bad frames before merging. This can be very useful for removing the affects of atmospheric turbulence from images.

digital signature – How to pass both passphrase and password in GPG signed symmetric encryption?

I am new to GPG so I may be going about this all wrong. I have some files I would like to encrypt symmetrically using AES256, but I want to sign them with my GPG key. I need to automate this process however so I’m using --batch and I pass the symmetric key after --passphrase. Since it needs to be automated, I’ve disabled passphrase caching by following the steps here. However, this means my script has no way to pass in the passphrase for my GPG private key. My script will be piping the files to gpg so passing the passphrase to gpg via stdin is also not an option.

If there is no reasonable way to pass both the AES password and private key passphrase, I might consider doing this in two steps, with gpg symmetrically encrypting and then a second round of gpg for signing. It seems excessive though, considering gpg can clearly do this in one step if one passes the private key passphrase interactively.

For reference, I’m using gpg2 exclusively and don’t care about backwards compatibility with gpg 1.x.

Here is the command I’m currently using for encryption. It encrypts and signs as expected, but I can only pass it the private key’s passphrase interactively in the text-based dialog “window”.

gpg2 --batch --passphrase <my-long-symmetric-password> --sign --symmetric --cipher-algo AES256 plaintext.txt

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lens – Can Canon T70 be converted to digital?

Theoretically Possible? Yes.

Back in 2001 there was a company that introduced an idea too far ahead of its time: to create digital modules that would fit inside conventional 35mm film cameras. But the technology to do it in such a small package was not available and it never got into production.

e-film EFS-1

Doable from a practical standpoint? Not unless you have resources similar to what was available to Kodak Laboratories in the 1980s and 1990s.

Some of the earliest digital cameras not tied down to a stationary lab, personal computer, or installed in a NASA space probe were built around the bodies of then-current film cameras. In 1991, Kodak released the first professional digital camera system (DCS) aimed at photojournalists. It was a Nikon F-3 film camera equipped by Kodak with a 1.3 megapixel sensor. It required a constant wired connection to a hard disk system used to store the image data.

Nikon DCS

1995 saw the debut of Canon’s first Digital EOS cameras the EOS DCS 3 and EOS DCS 5. With a 1.3 Megapixel CCD sensor and a price tag of 12,000 euro the EOS DCS 3, based on a modified EOS 1N film camera attached to a Kodak NC2000e digital camera back, gave photographic agencies the ability to produce transmission-ready images straight out of the camera. A digital module small enough to be attached directly to the base of the camera allowed it to be free of any umbilical cords connecting it to a separate unit.


Fully compatible with the entire range of EF lenses, the EOS DCS 3 was developed in collaboration with Kodak who produced the major electronic components.

Your Canon T70 is a pre-EOS era film camera that uses the FD lens mount system and no commercially available digital cameras have ever been produced by Canon or Kodak for that mount. Likewise, no digital backs and accompanying modules, such as were made for the Nikon F-3 and Canon EOS 1N film cameras, have ever been developed for an FD mount camera. So if you convert your T70 to digital you would need to build the digital parts yourself, just as Canon and Kodak did for the EOS 1N back in the 1990s.

US government discussing the use of blockchain-based “digital Dollar” |

As per Forbes, currently The House Financial Services Committee will conduct a hearing over the option to deliver the second round of stimulus payments to Americans by using a blockchain-based technology. During a extraordinary crisis like this, a lot of people are relying on government’s handouts to survive, with about 40 million of Americans already losing their jobs due to pandemic. With how the first round of stimulus paycheck still haven’t reached many Americans’ wallet, the delivery system based on blockchain will not only speed up the process but will also helping America to form it’s own “digitized Dollar”, rivaling China’s already digitized currency.


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