wireless – What does WPA2 traffic look like to a packet sniffer that is not connected to the network?

Imagine there is a wireless network using WPA2, and an attacker has come along with his wireless card in monitor mode. What will the packets from that network look like? Is any information disclosed i.e Destination/Source IPs/Ports? Or is it all just encrypted? The attacker is not connected to the network.

wireless networking – Does a USB-to-Ethernet adapter provide a full-duplex internet connection?

Yes, all modern Ethernet controllers run in full-duplex mode whenever possible. (You could even say it’s a requirement for Gigabit Ethernet.) You will see a full-duplex link reported by your router or switch, if it’s capable of showing that information.

The USB port of the adapter may run in half-duplex mode (that’s the only mode USB 2.0 supported), but this is completely independent from the adapter’s Ethernet port.

applications – android go edition of Assurance wireless phone. No option to boot into safe mode using power off button to change notification access issue

I have issues using new apps on my assurance wireless phone that require notification access to work. it is not available on this phone. on my old assurance phone using 7.1 it works, but the phone is too small for me to use as I am handicapped. I need an easier fix if there is one available other than reprogramming the phone as it is under warranty for another year. I know this is an older android system but is new to me. When I try to boot it into safe mode, it won’t.

Ubuntu Xenial not recognizing usb wireless headset

I have a fairly fresh install of ubuntu 16.04, and I have a logi h800 headset which worked fine when the same computer had 12.04 and 14.04 on it. I didn’t upgrade the computer, it’s a fresh install in a different partition. In my 16.04 environment, the computer is recognizing the headset as a logi h600, and the audio crackles all the time, cuts in and out, and causes buzzing in zoom meetings. I’ve never had issues with usb headsets before, they’ve always just worked. Does anyone know if I need to install new drivers or something? Googling it hasn’t been very helpful so far.

wireless – wifi not showing on ubuntu 20;04 LTS

I have Ubuntu 20.04 LTS installed alongside Windows 10 on Lenovo Flex laptop. The wifi works fine on Windows but when i switched to Ubuntu the wifi is not showing. I have tried many of the instructions on how to fix it but still the problem is not solved.

The output I get from lspci shows Realtek RTL8822BE wifi adapter present.

I really need my ubuntu wifi back, I have trying for 2 days to fix this problem. Thank you for the help!

networking – Installing Broadcom Wireless Drivers

This answer is based on an extensive research done by various Ubuntu users that worked together in almost all issues related to Broadcom. Special thanks to chili555 who helped in the Ubuntu forums and on this site with many questions related to Wireless devices and to others who have contributed through E-Mail, chats, IRC and more in testing various drivers with several of the most popular Broadcom Wireless cards (Huge Thanks to Chili555 really. This guy knows his stuff).

In total we wanted to offer an answer that could be easy to follow and covered most Broadcom Cards / Drivers. After you follow this guide, you will NEED to test your wireless connection for at least 2 hours (I actually recommend 8 hours) with another device in either Ad-Hoc Mode, Infrastructure Mode or Both. Common problems that will be solved (Apart from drivers not installing) are:

  • Connections timeout after several minutes or hours
  • Stops searching for other devices (Does not see any other device)
  • Keeps asking for password even on cases where AP does not have any
  • Stops any receiving/transmitting traffic (Needs reboot to temporarily fix)
  • Crashes system with dmesg errors in log (Link 1 Below)
  • System freezes completely (You can only press Reboot/Power button) (Link 1 Below)
  • Creates huge log reports trying to correctly configure or connect
  • Fails when installed via Additional Drivers / Additional Hardware (Link 3 Below)
  • Connects and disconnects continuously every X amount of seconds
  • Appears connected on Network Manager but does not receive Internet
  • Tries to connect many times without correctly finishing connection
  • Takes too long to connect
  • After upgrading from a previous version (eg: 12.04 to 12.10) it stops working
  • Wireless card does not turn on, enable or disable (Link 2 Below)
  • Wireless card blocked by hardware
  • More problems found in Launchpad, Ubuntu Forum and Askubuntu

Link 1 – https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux/+bug/1060268
Link 2 – https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/bcmwl/+bug/732677
Link 3 – Gives an error similar to “Sorry, installation of this driver failed.”

So with that in mind, the following is what we have right now which is simplified in just 3 steps:

There are dozens of Broadcom wireless cards and more seem to appear every day. The key to finding the correct driver for any network card is what is known as the PCI ID (PCI.ID). To find out which PCI.ID you have, we proceed to opening the terminal by pressing CTRL+ALT+T (It should open a window with a blank background) and inside this terminal we run the following command:

lspci -nn -d 14e4:

You will get something like the following if you have a Broadcom Wireless Adapter (The ID 14e4 used in the example above in most cases is a Broadcom Wireless Card):

Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11bgn Wireless Network Adapter (14e4:4320) (rev 03)

The PCI.ID in this example is 14e4:4320 as seen inside the Brackets (…). In some cases you will also need the revision version (if it appears) for some special cases. In this case, the revision version is rev 03 as shown inside the Parentheses (…) at the end. So what you will need after this search is:

(14e4:4320) (rev 03)

With this new information you can look in the table below and select the appropriate method to install your driver. For example, In this case, since you have the 14e4:4320 rev 03, if we go down the list to the one that shows the exact same PCI.ID you will see that in the columns for Ubuntu 12.04, 13.10 or 14.04 it shows the firmware-b43-installer package driver. This means that you will only have to install this particular package since it appears in all Ubuntu version columns.

NOTE – Before proceeding, if you have previously installed any drivers, have blacklisted or uncommented any driver files or configuration files or have done any changes whatsoever to the system to make the drivers work in previous attempts, you will need to undo them in order to follow this guide. We assume you are doing this from scratch and have not changed any configuration files, modules or drivers in the system in any way (apart from updating the system). This includes any installations using apt-get, aptitude, synaptic, dpkg, software center or manual compilation and installation of the packages. The system has to start from scratch in order for this to work and to avoid any conflicts that may appear if earlier work was done.

For example, if you have previously installed the bcmwl-kernel-source package, you will need to remove it by using the purge method:

sudo apt-get purge bcmwl-kernel-source

If you have just installed Ubuntu, you will need to build an index of available packages before we can install your driver if you have not done so already:

sudo apt update

I would even go so further as to update the Ubuntu list of PCI.IDs:

sudo update-pciids

Just in case the ID of a particular new Broadcom Device you are using has just appeared.

Now using the PCI.ID you found in the steps above, we then search in the list below to find the matching PCI.ID and the method to install the driver associated with it in a simple and correct way. The terminal will be used to avoid any GUI related issues. This applies with all cases, except as noted. The installation procedure is done only via terminal and also while connected to the internet with a temporary wired ethernet connection or USB modem or any means possible that can give your PC, for the time, Internet access. After you find in the list below the correct package we then proceed with the installation.

Assuming you used the PCI.ID 14e4:4320 rev 03 as found in your search above, and then looked at the table below and found that the correct package to install is the firmware-b43-installer, we then proceed to simply install this package in the terminal:

sudo apt install firmware-b43-installer

and then reboot

sudo reboot

The format to install is pretty simple, it’s just:

sudo apt install <PACKAGE_NAME>

In the example above, the PACKAGE_NAME is firmware-b43-installer.

BROADCOM WIRELESS TABLE (Updated Aug 18, 2017)

PCI.ID              16.04 LTS                        17.10+
14e4:0576           Special Case #1                   UNKNOWN      
14e4:1713           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4301           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4306           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4306 rev 02    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4306 rev 03    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4307           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4311           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4311 rev 01    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4312           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4313           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer               
14e4:4315           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4315 rev 01    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer
14e4:4318           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer                
14e4:4318 rev 02    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer                
14e4:4319           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer               
14e4:4320 rev 02    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer               
14e4:4320 rev 03    firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer            
14e4:4321           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer  
14e4:4324           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer        
14e4:4325           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4328           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer
14e4:4328 rev 03    bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source      
14e4:4329           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source        
14e4:432a           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source        
14e4:432b           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source        
14e4:432c           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source        
14e4:432d           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source       
14e4:4331           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer          
14e4:4335           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      
14e4:4350           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer  
14e4:4353           Special Case #1                   UNKNOWN        
14e4:4353 rev 01    Special Case #1                   UNKNOWN                 
14e4:4357           Special Case #1                   UNKNOWN        
14e4:4358           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source
14e4:4359           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source       
14e4:4360           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source    
14e4:4365           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source      
14e4:4365 rev 01    bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source      
14e4:43a0           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source
14e4:43ae rev 02    UNKNOWN                           UNKNOWN     
14e4:43b1           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source        
14e4:43b1 rev 03    bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source              
14e4:43c3 rev 04    UNKNOWN                           Special Case #2                     
14e4:4727           bcmwl-kernel-source               bcmwl-kernel-source        
14e4:4727 rev 01    Special Case #1                   Special Case #1        
14e4:a962           firmware-b43-installer            firmware-b43-installer      

Special Case #1 – Uses bcma and brcmsmac driver combination. Required firmware is installed by default in the package linux-firmware.

Special Case #2 – For the ASUS PCE-AC88 AC3100 the steps are:

  1. Download This file and after extracting it, put it in /lib/firmware/brcm
    sudo cp brcmfmac4366c-pcie.bin /lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4366c-pcie.bin
  2. Then sudo nano /etc/rc.local add modprobe brcmfmac and save
  3. sudo reboot

In hardware like the Lenovo S10-2, if your wireless card gets stuck trying to connect to an SSID (keeps trying to connect), then the alternative to get it working would be to install the bcmwl-kernel-source package (Remove any other installed packages related to it). Read the Debugging section below for more information regarding this wireless device.

IMPORTANT NOTE – After September 2014, if you follow this answer and still you have problems installing the correct driver, please try the firmware-b43-installer package and notify us via comments. There were some changes and some drivers will only work with this package. Remember to have a clean system before installing it:

sudo apt install firmware-b43-installer

In some particular cases, after installing the firmware-b43-installer you need to remove the b43 module, enable it again and even proceed to unblock with rfkill:

 sudo modprobe -r b43
 sudo modprobe b43    
 sudo rfkill unblock all  

If you have a Broadcom card that has a different pci.id, please ask a new question. Once solved, the solution will be added to this howto.

4.1 Installing firmware-b43-installer

To install firmware-b43-installer offline see this answer.

4.2 Installing bcmwl-kernel-source

For cases where you need to install bcmwl-kernel-source but you are offline, here is an excellent answer about it.
But basically follow this steps:

  1. Search for the package in the Ubuntu Package Repositories
  2. Make sure you select the correct architecture (32-Bit, 64-Bit, etc..)
  3. Download package and dependency packages related to it on the same folder.
  4. When you have all packages needed (and their dependencies), proceed on going to the folder that has all packages and run sudo dpkg -i *.deb. This will install all packages in that folder. If it gives any errors, read the error and follow the steps it mentions.

To give an example, after going to point 1 mentioned above, If you had the
Broadcom 14e4:43a0, you would search for the bcmwl-kernel-source package and after selecting the corresponding Ubuntu version (In my case 16.04 or Xenial) I would land on the following page:


On this page I would select the corresponding architecture (32 or 64) but would also need to download the 3 package dependencies mentioned on that page as seen in the following image:

enter image description here

After downloading all packages and dependencies, you can proceed on copying all packages to a single folder and running the dpkg command as mentioned on step 4 above.

In some computers, before performing the commands, you will need to deactivate the Secure Boot Options in your BIOS. This applies for cases, for example, where the bcmwl-kernel-source is already installed but the driver does not yet work. You can do a reinstall like so, or disable Secure Boot by going to your BIOS Setup:

sudo apt-get install --reinstall bcmwl-kernel-source

The following information is additional material to read about solving various issues related to Wireless Management and conflicts with other Network devices. Know that it some cases you need to have an updated Kernel version, since each new version of the Kernel introduces either new Network drivers, improvements over existing drivers or solves bugs regarding them.

Before reading the points mentioned below, be sure to have all repositories enabled on your Ubuntu system. To check, run on the terminal software-properties-gtk and make sure all options on the Ubuntu Software Tab are enabled.

  • To configure your wireless devices through the terminal I recommend How to connect and disconnect to a network manually in terminal?

  • If your connection drops every so often some users have suggested to set IPv6 to Ignore. Just go to Network Manager (The network icon on the top panel). Click on it then select Edit Settings. Then go to the Wireless connection you are using, select it. Now go to the last Tab in there that mentions IPv6 Settings. In the Method field select Ignore.

  • If your laptop does not detect your wireless card some users have mentioned that using rfkill unblock all will solve the problem. Others simply turned the WiFi switch on their laptops off and then on again (Physical switch available on this laptops). For more information about rfkill please read rf kill unblock all DOES NOT WORK!

  • If you are getting b43-phy0 ERROR: Fatal DMA error / b43-phy0 warning: Forced PIO do the following:

    sudo rmmod b43     
    sudo modprobe b43 pio=0 qos=0  

    If it works then add it to you RC files so it is executed every time you boot. You can change PIO to 1 if you need to it.

  • If you are having a Required key not available when installing a DKMS module (Like Nvidia, Broadcom or others) you can go to Pilot’s Answer Here

  • If your wireless card see/not see the router and gets stuck in an endless “Trying to connect (Try 1/3)” loop the solution might be proper configuration of your router or wireless SSID device.

    For all Wireless cards in general, it is very important to also take into consideration the network devices you are using (Routers, Switches, Wireless Channels and Wireless Bands, etc..). With this information you will be able to evaluate better what the source of the problem could be when you arrive at a dead end. An example would be the Lenovo S10-2 which uses the 14e4:4315 rev 01 PCIID. Even after installing the correct driver the user would end up in a “trying to connect” loop. It would see the wireless SSID but when trying to connect to it, it would enter an reconnecting loop.

    The solution was that this particular wireless device did not support 40 Mhz channels nor does it support 802.11N. The router in that case was actually broadcasting with a forced 40 Mhz and on WiFi-N only. When the router was set to Auto mode and 20/40 Mhz Channel, the wireless card worked correctly. This is a case scenario that also repeats in other cases, so a proper evaluation of the network equipment would help a lot.

    For cases where you get repeated:

    ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address…

    when doing a dmesg and your wireless connection drops often (Several times an hour or a day), the issue here might be that you are inside a wireless signal that is used as a Wireless Bridge (2 Routers sharing the same SSID and connection). This can happen with modern Routers that have the ability to extend the wireless connection by offering the same SSID. your wireless connection might drop because you might be between both routers and the signal strength between both is almost the same.

    If your connection drops very often, it means you are almost in the middle of both router devices. To lower or eliminate the dropping rate of your wireless device, try to position yourself where your wireless card can see only one router or at least one of the routers has a higher signal strength than the other one.

    There are also some techniques to force the wireless device to only connect to a specific router by setting the BSSID to the MAC Address of the router you wish to connect to. This will force your wireless device to ONLY connect to it.

    enter image description here

Secure Boot Issues

On some specific scenarios, installing the drivers, be it in offline mode through various DEB packages or through apt-get with internet access, will not work if Secure Boot is not disabled.

This is because the access needed is denied by Secure Boot so the drivers will look like they are installed correctly when in fact the did not. So for VERY specific cases, you will need to temporarily disable Secure Boot in order for the drivers to work.

Linux Firmware Update

On other cases looking for and installing the latest Linux Firmware would solve the issue. Either solving minor problems that were happening with a working card or making the card work for the first time.

wireless – Inbound connections not working to wifi, unless wired network is connected

I have a system I just upgraded from 19 to 20.04. Wifi works fine when logged in locally. But…after installing openssh-server, I found I could not ssh into the laptop.

I’ve got assigned IPv4 addresses to both the wifi and ethernet MAC addresses, with distinct DNS names so I know which adapter I connecting to. Plugging in an ethernet cable suddenly enables inbound connections on the wifi address (and the ethernet one, too).

iptables -L -v says I have no rules.

Inbound rpd and ssh both work if the ethernet cable is plugged in, but not if it’s not. Testing is all on my local network. It looks like a firewall issue, or a udev rule, but I can’t see it….

No idea where to look at next….Can anyone give me a clue?


How to install a rtl8192fu usb wireless adapter

i have a tp-link rtl8192fu wireless usb adapter vid:pid is 2357:0135
i find a rtl8192eu driver at github, but it can not work.
Is anyone tell me how to resolve it?
Thank you.

hdmi – Trying to make a Wacom Cintiq graphics tablet wireless

I’ve got a Cintiq Pro 24, and I’d like to be able to have it in a room other than the one with my PC. Since it requires an HDMI cable and a USB cable, I assume I just need to replace both of those with the appropriate wireless dongle. Unfortunately, I don’t really know which ones to try, or even if my assumption is accurate. I’ve begun the research, but I’m seeing a price range of HDMI hubs from $20 to $1500, and I don’t know how to choose. Resolution is important for my purposes, but I’ll just be using it as a display so latency isn’t an issue.

I’d be very grateful for any guidance. Thanks! Thanks very much!

Audio: Stereo output muted while using microphone on wireless headphones

I have headphones that have 2 audio inputs and 1 microphone audio output:

enter the image description here

enter the image description here

They are made by a Chinese company called Bludio.

By default, the headphones are configured as in the screenshots above.

However, when using the microphone / detects noise, the STEREO output is muted. I have no idea why, or if it's a Windows / software issue, or something the manufacturer configured in their firmware.

I can combat this by setting HANDS-FREE as the default and communications device (so that the stereo is no longer used and only the hands-free output has a tick).

This works, however for some reason the audio quality is very bad with hands-free output. Again, I don't know if this is something fixable in Windows or a firmware issue. I switched the audio output to my normal wired speakers (Realtek high def …) and the audio quality was still bad. It only returned to normal when I unplugged the headphones. This leads me to believe that it is a software / driver problem, that is, the sample rate is forced to drop when using hands free.

Why do the headphones have split outputs like this and why is the quality so bad when I want to use the microphone? Is it to reduce the necessary bluetooth bandwidth?

Note: My friend took out another pair of cheap headphones from Amazon and suffers from exact the same problems so i think it may have to do with the cheap hardware used in the headphones.

EDIT: The guys in this post seem to be having the same problem. Like me, they had to disable the microphone to stop the STEREO output from muting, or use the poor quality HADNS-FREE output.

However, they went into Bluetooth settings on the headphones and completely disabled "hands-free telephony". All it does is completely deactivate the hands-free part of the headphones, so the microphone cannot be used.

Here's another post on the same problem