## unity – Water shader not working on some machines in Unity3D?

I’ve got a report from a player (1 in ~100), that the water isn’t rendered on his machine.

I’ve made a small change so I can use it in orthographic projection as well:

            float existingDepthLinear = 0;

if (unity_OrthoParams.w > 0)
{
// orthographic camera
#if defined(UNITY_REVERSED_Z)
existingDepthLinear = 1.0f - existingDepth01;
#endif
existingDepthLinear = (existingDepthLinear * _ProjectionParams.z) + _ProjectionParams.y;
}
else
{
// perspective camera
existingDepthLinear = LinearEyeDepth(existingDepth01);
}

// Difference, in Unity units, between the water's surface and the object behind it.
float depthDifference = existingDepthLinear - i.screenPosition.z;


What could cause this issue?

## How to save 4×5 images of artwork, slide images of artwork in 1 foot of water?

There was a flood in my storage. Items were removed within 24 hours. How can I save the images and negatives?

## dnd 5e – The whirlpool application of the Control Water spell leads to several questions regarding creatures caught in it

Are creatures or objects in the water and within 25′ of the vortex automatically pulled 10′ toward it?

Yes, when the whirlpool forms.

Do they continue to be pulled 10′ further toward the center of the vortex every round they are in it?

You’ve pointed out that control water allows the caster to spend an action to “repeat the same effect or choose a different one” — so the caster should be able to spend an action on their turn to re-form the whirlpool and pull creatures ten feet toward it again. This seems like not the best use of an action but it appears to be a valid use of the spell.

If the caster does not choose to use their action in this way, then the pull does not repeat.

Is a creature or object caught in the vortex also pulled down toward the bottom?

It only pulls “toward” the vortex. We don’t have a clear definition of what it means to be pulled “toward” something that is larger than five feet, so your DM will have to fill in the details of how this works. This DM would rule that you stay on the surface of the water, but the surface of the water is sloped downward towards the center, so if you reach the center then you are still on the surface of the water but you are twenty-five feet lower than the normal water level.

On a failed save, are they caught for the entire duration of the spell, with no more chance at saves, or until they can swim free of it?

Every time they start their turn in the vortex, they make a new save, and the result of the new save determines whether they’re “caught” during that round. The fact that they’re “caught” seems to only affect whether they get disadvantage on a check to swim away.

This is a bit confusing because failing a save causes a creature to be “caught in the vortex until the spell ends”, but then making a save on the next turn overrides that by saying that the creature “isn’t caught in the vortex”.

On a failed save, does a creature continue to take 2d8 bludgeoning damage every round they are in the vortex?

The creature makes a new save every round they are in the vortex, and takes full damage or half damage depending on the result of that save.

Can the whirlpool be cast so that it is completely underwater?

The rules don’t technically say that you can’t do this, but your DM might veto it.

Also, can the whirlpool be cast ‘upside down’ so the widest part is at the bottom?

No. The rules say “the widest part is at the top”.

## dnd 5e – Can a Decanter of Endless Water be changed to produce other liquids?

### Not quite, the closest item would be the Alchemy Jug.

There is nothing in the way of detailed lore behind the Decanter of Endless Water, so it is entirely up to the DM what this looks like in their world – they may choose to create a Decanter of Endless Whisky if they wish. But, there does exist a canonical alternative.

The Alchemy Jug lacks the volume capabilities of the Decanter of endless water, but makes up for it in diversity.

The Alchemy Jug can produce acid, poison, beer, honey, mayonnaise, oil, vinegar, salt water, fresh water, and wine, at a rate of 2 gallons per minute in varying quantities, with a limit of 1 type of liquid per day.

Yes, it can make mayonnaise.

## dnd 5e – Can a Decanter of Endless Water be constructed to produce other liquids?

Thanks for contributing an answer to Role-playing Games Stack Exchange!

But avoid

• Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience.

Use MathJax to format equations. MathJax reference.

## magic items – Decatur of endless water, can it spray out other liquids?

Thanks for contributing an answer to Role-playing Games Stack Exchange!

But avoid

• Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience.

Use MathJax to format equations. MathJax reference.

## underwater – 4×5 images of artwork, slide images of artwork in 1 foot of water

If possible, you’ll want/need to immediately separate the film sheets or strips while still wet, and remove them from any archive sleeves, and store them immersed in room temperature, clean water as you work.

Longer term, you’ll need to rewash each film item in clean water, reapply wetting agent or appropriate process-specific final rinse (C-41 final rinse, for instance, contains antifungal and antibacterial agents that will be helpful in future longevity of contaminated film), and dry them before remounting or resleeving in archival sleeves.

If the items weren’t stored wet, there is likely to be permanent, irreparable damage because the gelatin that makes up most of a photographic emulsion is also a very powerful adhesive (top quality furniture is assembled with glue made from gelatin).

## dnd 5e – The whirpool application of the Control Water spell leads to several questions regarding creatures caught in it

Are creatures or objects in the water and within 25′ of the vortex automatically pulled 10′ toward it?

Yes, once only, when the spell is first cast.

Do they continue to be pulled 10′ further toward the center of the vortex every round they are in it?

No.

Is a creature or object caught in the vortex also pulled down toward the bottom?

No. The pulling only happens once and it only pulls “toward” the vortex.

On a failed save, are they caught for the entire duration of the spell, with no more chance at saves, or until they can swim free of it?

Every time they start their turn in the vortex, they make a new save, and the result of the new save determines whether they’re “caught” during that round. The fact that they’re “caught” seems to only affect whether they get disadvantage on a check to swim away.

This is a bit confusing because failing a save causes a creature to be “caught in the vortex until the spell ends”, but then making a save on the next turn overrides that by saying that the creature “isn’t caught in the vortex”.

On a failed save, does a creature continue to take 2d8 bludgeoning damage every round they are in the vortex?

The creature makes a new save every round they are in the vortex, and takes full damage or half damage depending on the result of that save.

Can the whirlpool be cast so that it is completely underwater?

The rules don’t technically say that you can’t do this, but your DM might veto it.

Also, can the whirlpool be cast ‘upside down’ so the widest part is at the bottom?

No. The rules say “the widest part is at the top”.

## dnd 5e – Can I use Holy Water for an “additional weapon attack”?

### RAW, Holy Water requires an action to use.

The description for Holy Water says:

As an action, you can splash the contents of this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a target creature, treating the holy water as an improvised weapon. If the target is a fiend or undead, it takes 2d6 radiant damage.

Using the holy water in the way described here requires you use a full action. If you take the attack action, then technically this is a different action than the action described in the holy water description.

### The order you do things should only matter when the rules specify that order matters.

Allowing you to use holy water as part of an attack action makes the sequence order dependent. Under this rule, if I throw holy water first, I can make no more attacks, but if I attack first, I can still throw holy water.

To be clear, my understanding of the D&D 5e action economy is that most things or order independent unless they specifically lay out the ordered conditions – this is not a rule, but a perspective on the rules in general. This is why I would stick with the RAW ruling I explained above.

## dnd 5e – Can spells with a verbal component be cast underwater if the caster can’t breathe water?

To play Devil’s Advocate here, it is not strictly RAW to disallow spellcasting. Of course, it is a sensible house rule — but it would be a house rule if you disallowed it.

This tweet from Jeremy Crawford explicitly states that being underwater doesn’t interfere with spellcasting. There is no conditional “Yes, if they can breathe underwater”

Another Sage Advice tweet from Jeremy Crawford says that, if you can breathe underwater, you can perform the verbal components of spells. Fair enough. However, this is NOT the same as “if you can’t breathe underwater, you can’t perform the verbal components of spells” either.

Just as saying “if you can sing, you have a voice” is true, but “if you can’t sing, you don’t have a voice” is not necessarily true. Again, strictly speaking, nothing is disallowing spellcasting here yet.

As @NautArch has shown, the PHB does mention a rule on V components of spells that seems like it should affect spellcasting.

Most spells require the chanting of mystic words. The words themselves aren’t the source of the spell’s power; rather, the particular combination of sounds, with specific pitch and resonance, sets the threads of magic in motion. Thus, a character who is gagged or in an area of silence, such as one created by the silence spell, can’t cast a spell with a verbal component.

This question on Quora asks if we can talk normally underwater. Well, the answer is yes, we can speak normally. The question is just, can the person you’re speaking to understand you?

Well, in spellcasting, nobody needs to understand you. You just need to produce mystic words that form a combination of sounds, with a specific pitch and resonance. Note that you can always do this underwater, it’s just that the sound is formed in your larynx and becomes distorted as soon as it touches the water. But the rules don’t say “the sounds must reach outside your larynx” or “others must hear you clearly”. You can technically still do it.

Moreover, every spellcaster will likely have different ways of casting the same spell, just because they naturally have different voices. It is not against the rules to consider that there are multiple ways you can set pitch and resonance, but still cause the weaves of magic to be set in motion in the same way. So, sound can still travel through water. Why can’t a magic user speak those mystic words in a way that, when the sound travels underwater, the specific pitch and resonance still matches what is needed to pull off the spell? RAW, this is not illegal.

There are many ways to wave this away. Any answer I give will not be RAW, and is in DM fiat territory absolutely.

Nonetheless, you can argue that when you are gagged, your tongue cannot move about and you cannot shape the sounds and words precisely because of this, whereas being underwater does not forbid this.

You can also say that being gagged restricts your jaw movement, but being underwater doesn’t, so you still retain enough control to be able to cast while submerged.

Casting underwater is different from casting in air, this is true. How you handle this is up to you. This Enworld discussion shows a few ways other DMs handle it, in the order of their appearance in that thread:

• Spellcasting is totally disallowed underwater unless the caster can speak underwater
• Allow spellcasting underwater without penalties, as there is no rule actually forbidding it
• Have the caster perform a check. On a failure, the spell slot is not wasted, but the action is lost. But only do this if: 1) there was a way around this issue, or 2) being in the water is intended to be a penalty. Otherwise, just let the casters cast normally.
• If spellcasting is penalized underwater, non-casters must be similarly penalized
• Allow one spell to be cast, but then immediately have the caster start drowning
• Require a concentration check before casting a spell
• Disallow spellcasting for a one-off encounter, but allow it if the characters are expected to be under the water for extended periods

You can cast a single spell underwater, but afterwards you begin drowning if you can’t breathe underwater. Otherwise, no rule prevents verbal components from working underwater. Thanks to @mxyzplk for bringing this tweet to my attention!