seo – Are people searching for educational resources online likely to use just the name of the subject as their query?

People willing to learn physics might search for something like “physics books”, “physics courses”, “high school physics”, “guide to learning physics”, and similar queries. But what I find interesting is that even the combined search volume of all of these queries much lower than that of “physics” alone.

For instance, look at this data:,physics%20books,learn%20physics,physics%20for%20beginners,physics%20basics

I tried it out with almost a hundred queries (derived from Google’s “searches related to (your query)” section at the bottom of the page), and still, the combined search volume would only add up to less than 20 units on Google Trends relative to 72 units for “chemistry”.

I guess if there are about 500 frequently used queries (say the ones searched for more than once a week), applying the Pareto principle, the combined search volume would be no more than 30 relative units against “physics”.

What do you think?

sensor – a6400 Red circle (light / flare) when getting close to darker subject

I run into a little issue today and can’t figure out the root cause.

I have the a6400, when I get close to a subject, mostly black / dark fabric type of material, I will see a red dot (light / flare) on the subject, as I move further, it turns into a circle, and it stays on the final shot.

It happens with both the 35-50 kit lens and the sigma 16mm,

It’s also not Focus Illuminate, I tested with it turned off and issue persisted.

Any idea what this could be?

Big thanks for looking into this!

FE1424B5-1A3C-4C31-A7FA-4C553710DB80.jpegenter image description here

enter image description here

Need gmail script to reply to selected message, change subject, and send. Then change label

So I’m a recent convert of Outlook+Exchange to Gmail (company forced). I approve a lot of requisitions and such in email for automated processing by other applications. To do this, I simply review the message and if I approve it, reply and add “Approved” to the end of the subject. In Outlook, I created the VBA macro that would take the selected message and do the this task automatically: reply; modify the subject; send; and move the original message. This made for 2 click process… 1 to select the message and review it, one to respond with approval and archive the original message.

I’m an old hand with VBA but completely green with google script. From what I’ve seen, it looks intuitive but I need some help getting started. I’d appreciate some pointers. I’ve included a snippet of the VBA code below:

Dim obj As Object
Dim msg As Outlook.MailItem
Dim msgReply As Outlook.MailItem

Set obj = GetCurrentItem 'grabs the currently selected item.
If TypeName(obj) = "MailItem" Then 'make sure the item is a mailitem
    Set msg = obj 'msg is now the mail item to work on
    If msg.Parent = "AP Invoices" Then 'need to make sure the msg is in the AP Invoices folder 
        Set msgReply = msg.ReplyAll 'this initiates a reply all to the msg
        msgReply.Subject = msgReply.Subject & "Approved" 'adds "Approved" to end existing subject
        msgReply.Display 'displays the message
        msgReply.Send 'sends the message
        msg.UnRead = False 'marks the original msg as read
        msg.Move olProcessedFolder 'moves the original msg to a different folder
    end if
end if

In Outlook, I used rules to get the email into the “AP Invoices” folder and I have gmail doing the same for a label using a filter.

Question: Once I have a script, how do I manually initiate it? On Outlook, I added a command button on the toolbar that launched the VBA macro… not sure if that is possible in Gmail.

Appreciate any assistance.

X.509 – How Is Certificate Chain of Trust “Subject Name”-“Issuer Name” Match Comparison Made?

I keep reading that in an X.509 certificate chain of trust that the “Issuer Name” in a certificate that has been signed by the Issuer must “match” the “Subject Name” of the Issuer’s certificate. Exactly how is this match determined? Do all of the RDNs (Relative Distinguished Names) have to match between both the Subject Name and Issuer Name or is the match determined solely by the RDNs that are present in the Issuer certificate’s Subject Name, or is some other match algorithm at work?

gmail – stick the email subject on top when scrolling down email with long body content?

Is there a way or at-least an extension that can make the gmail mail subject stick on top?

while we scroll down while reading the email long body content !

sometimes we have to follow up what the subject of mail is some information like a ticket number is always in the subject.

subject distance – Calculation of the heigth of the camera

I am trying to find the height of a drone using the camera only. I can calculate the distance of the object top and bottom. Object is a square platform with width=0.2m. I used the equation provided by this article:

Now, i am writing a program for a small drone, is there a way to calculate the height of it using the distances shown in the image below? The platform is always sitting straight as shown in the image.
FOV of the camera = 82.6 degrees

enter image description here

email – Why would a company start their e-mail subject line with a space?

I’ve just scratched my head, then screamed to the screen about a bug for a few hours. It turned out that a company was sending e-mails to me with subject lines such as:

 Your order 213434563 is ready!

That is, with a single space in the beginning. As you can imagine, I was checking for subjects beginning with “Your order “, when I needed to do ” Your order ” or modify the subject lines, which I would rather not.

What could be the reason for this? Is this an attempt to “stand out slightly” or something? It almost seems on purpose to mess with my script’s logic…

It really annoys me to think that somebody could have made a business script where they randomly accidentally added a space in front and never spotted it…

PS: And to make it clear, this is a company which I have an established relationship with. Not some random SPAM e-mail.

authentication – Client certificate common name? Subject alternative name?

For an IoT project, I want to secure client server communication. I want both the server (Apache) and the clients identify/authenticate each other (a client won’t communicate with other clients) before clients can post some data.

There is much less information about client certificates. Besides documentations, there are best practices. I would like to know, how to set common name and subject alternative names for clients, as they won’t have a domain name and a fix IP address.

Do I simply tell the server to ignore a mismatch? Can I use a wild card only CN (CN=*)? I also would like the cert to identify specific client. Server needs to be able to tell apart client 1 from client 2, etc…


pathfinder 1e – Are gaze attacks subject to spell resistance?

I haven’t been able to find an answer for this, just the description for gaze attack over and over saying to cover/avert your eyes to foil such an attack.

I mean, it’s clearly magical in nature, and spell like abilities can be blocked by spell resistance, but I just want to be sure in case there’s some rule out there that says otherwise.

depth of field – How can I maximize the “blurry background, sharp subject” (bokeh) effect?

Here’s how to make the background as blurry as possible while keeping the subject sharp.

It’s the contrast between a sharp subject and a very blurry background that makes this effect stand out. Simply setting a wide aperture and getting a shallow depth of field is not how you get this effect, because then the subject may not be fully in focus. Background blur depends not just on the aperture setting, but also on the positioning of the camera, subject, and background, and on the the focal length of the lens.

First, decide how large the subject should appears within the frame. That’s the magnification (relative to the frame size, ignoring differences between formats). The magnification is an important aspect of the composition that will probably override all other considerations for sharpness and blurriness, so this procedure assumes the relative magnification will be decided first and held constant.

Next, find the largest aperture (smallest f-number) that keeps the subject entirely in sharp focus. That means the focus field must be just deep enough to include the subject front-to-back, with nothing in front of or behind the subject in sharp focus. Focus must also be set accurately to include the entire subject. Note that the subject appearing sharp on a screen (or in a print) depends on how it is viewed. If you are viewing the image on a screen at reduced resolution or from a far distance, more of the image will appear sharp (that is, the focus field will be deeper). So try to emulate the final viewing conditions as best you can. If you want the image to appear sharp according to the limit of your camera’s resolution, use your camera’s focus magnification feature to zoom in all the way as you are adjusting the aperture and focus. For a given magnification and format, the focus field’s depth depends largely on the f-number, and is largely independent of the distance between the camera and the subject, and the focal length. So with the aperture now set, it shouldn’t require much adjustment from this point on. (Though with the subject very close to the camera and with a very wide lens, the focus field is deeper for a given f-number and format.)

With the magnification and the f-number now set and held constant, background blur is maximized by maximizing the camera-to-subject distance and the subject-to-background distance. Longer focal length lenses let you move the camera further from the subject and increase the background blur while maintaining the desired magnification.

Shooting indoors, where the camera-to-background distance is constrained, background blur is maximized by placing the camera as far as possible from the background, and placing the subject halfway in between. If your longest lens doesn’t give you enough magnification, move the subject closer until you get the magnification you want.

Shooting outdoors where the distance to the background is large, use your longest lens and back the camera far enough away from the subject to achieve the desired magnification. A more distant background will appear blurrier, but the effect increases more slowly as the distance approaches infinity, so don’t worry about trying to make the subject-to-background distance really large.

Note that moving the camera back also changes the perspective, making background objects appear larger relative to the subject.

A note about formats and lenses: If you are shooting with high magnification, the focus field will be shallow even at moderate f-numbers, and so having a fast lens is not important. In fact you might not be able to get the entire subject in focus even at the lens’s smallest aperture setting. Smaller format cameras have lenses with smaller apertures, which can overcome this problem. If you are shooting with low magnification (the subject is far away or the angle of view is wide), the focus field can be deeper than you want even with a fast lens. Larger format cameras can overcome this problem by having lenses with larger apertures.