ssl – How does SASA_SSL security protocol work?

How SSL works is well know as it’s quite widely used and described well every where. In short – SSL involves

  1. Verifying server authenticity by client by verifying the servers X.509 certificate.
  2. Then arriving at a symmetric key using diffie-hellman key exchange algorithm.

But I am not sure what happens withsecurity.protocol=SASL_SSL. Clients and Server communication of few technologies like Kafka etc rely on this security protocol as one of the option. Here I am worried about the point 1 above. If i get a wrong broker address (as a trick ) from some one, does SASL_SSL verify the server certificate or not is my question. If it does, then I can be sure that the received broker is not genuine and my application will not publish or subscribe to messages from this server and my data is safe.

Why RDS needs only CA certificate to connect via SSL?

Usually you need a client certificate and a pair of public/private key to connect securely. How come all RDS needs is a CA certificate?

tls – What is the workflow from client to server for SSL enabled sites?

Here is a quick breakdown of how it works: First, the client contacts the server and sends a “Client Hello”, to which the server replies with a “Server Hello”. These messages include version numbers, supported cipher suites and more. Among others, they also include the leaf certificate, as well as all intermediate certificates. The certificate authority, also called the “root certificate”, is usually not sent.

The client verifies whether or not the leaf certificate is valid, as well as the signature of this certificate, together with the intermediate certificate. The client then checks whether or not the certificate, which signed the top-most intermediate certificate, is in the trust store of the client. If so, the chain of trust is established – if not, the certificate is considered untrusted.

Next, it is verified whether or not the certificate is revoked. For this, two mechanisms are used: CRL (Certificate Revocation Lists) and OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol)

If CRL is used, the certificate includes a link to where the revocation list is published. This list must also be signed by a CA, but I don’t know if it must be the same CA as the one who signed the certificate – in practice, it will be the same. A certificate revocation list is exactly what it says on the tin: A list of certificates which have been revoked. The client checks whether the certificate in question is on that list, and if so, it does not trust the connection.

If OCSP is used, the certificate needs to point to and endpoint by the certificate authority. The client then sends an OCSP request to the endpoint, asking if this certificate is valid, and the endpoint responds with “Yes”, “No” or some other stuff (Certificate unknown, etc..)

OCSP Stapling can also be used, in which the server periodically queries the OCSP endpoint about its own status, then returns a signed response together with the Server Hello. In essence, it says “Hi, I’m and said 2 minutes ago I am valid”. The advantage is that it saves the client from asking the endpoint, but the downside is many servers don’t support it.


What about Man-in-the-Middle attacks?

Since the Certificate Authority’s keys are already on my machine, the attacker can’t really “forge” them. They would need administrative access on my machine to add a new CA or modify an existing one – but in that case, I have already lost.

Any other changes in any of the parameters, such as the address of the CRL or OCSP endpoint, or the data in those responses, would lead to an invalid verification.

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ssl – Nginx listening on 80 after removing server block

I am trying to restrict http access to my webapp. It should only be accessed using https.

my nginx conf file looks like this:

server {
  listen                443 ssl;
  ssl_certificate       /home/ubuntu/certificate.crt;
  ssl_certificate_key   /home/ubuntu/private.key;

  server_name ec2-xx-xx-xx-xx.xx-xx-x.compute.amazonaws.com;
  
  # location blocks below ...
}

When I access my server using IP address and HTTP, it is redirecting users to https:// on chrome, but on firefox, it’s redirecting to https://. I want to disable redirect from HTTP to HTTPS. How do I do that?

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apache – Different SSL certs being delivered to different platforms

I received reports of an invalid SSL cert on a site that I recently started managing. Testing it on a Linux PC and a Windows PC, I find that the cert being delivered is different from the one delivered on an Apple mobile device.

The server is running Apache 2.4, and I can see that the invalid cert is set up in /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf. The correct cert is set up in /etc/httpd/vhosts/mydomain.conf.

Is this a common issue? What’s going on here? (I don’t want to make big changes to the server config because it’s been around since before I got here, and Apache is serving multiple virtual hosts.)

docker – Securing a Kubernetes application – SSL on Kubernetes or container?

I have a gRPC server written in golang and containerized with Docker. I would like to deploy this application to Kubernetes with TLS (Let’s Encrypt).

What is the best way to secure the application? I’ve read that Kubernetes can use a Let’s Encrypt ingress controller to handle TLS and securing the cluster. However, my gRPC web server can also load certificates to enable TLS. This is less convenient though, because I have to restart the container when certificates renew, bind them to a volume, etc.

Is there anything wrong with leaving the container insecure (serving HTTP) and have the Kubernetes cluster proxy take care of securing the connection?

React Js + AWS Cloudfront + SaaS + SSL Certificates

This is the scenario I have in mind

  • SaaS application

  • Frontend built using React Js

  • Hosted using S3 bucket + Cloudfront

  • Customer domains pointing to this application using CNAME

Questions –

  1. Can AWS certificate manager be used to issue SSL to all pointing domains ?

  2. Is S3 + Cloudfront + AWS Certificate Manager the correct choice for such an application ?

  3. What would be the cost of issuing SSL certificates in this scenarios. We are thinking of more than 100K customers

Thank you in advance for your help.

tls – How to distiguish if SSL certificate is for both domain and subdomains or for domain only?

When you purchase certificate for single domain, Subject Alternative Names (SAN) extension will typically include two entries:

example.com
www.example.com

this will allow:

  • parent domain
  • www host under parent domain

when you purchase certificate for arbitrary subdomains (without hosts in subdomains), then you can get a wildcard certificate with the following entries:

example.com
*.example.com

this will allow:

  • parent domain
  • any subdomain without hosts (e.g. www.sub.example.com is not covered)
  • any host under parent domain

if you want to have hosts under subdomains, then all subdomains must be listed explicitly, e.g.

example.com
*.example.com
*.sub1.example.com
*.sub2.example.com

this combination will allow:

  • parent domain
  • any subdomain
  • any host under parent domain
  • any host under sub1.example.com domain
  • any host under sub2.example.com domain