How to correctly setup google domains et google cloud DNS to get certbot (Let’s Encrypt) running

I have a small server at home running TrueNas with a couple of jails. I created a jail to host the reverse proxy, nginx, to reach one of my jails, git, from the outside. I am trying to follow this tutorial and I do want to implement https. However, certbot doesn’t work with Google Domain directly but with the Google Cloud DNS API. After trying different things, I am missing the correct setup on both Google Domain and Google Cloud DNS to make certbot work and deliver the https certificates.

I own the domain name through google domain. I am trying to make my jail git running gitea accessible to the address

On Google Cloud, I created a project, a service account with the correct permissions for certbot, and a DNS zone. Under Google Cloud DNS the created zone is:

google cloud dns

On Google Domain, I have disabled DNSSEC and set the name servers to custom name servers, matching the name servers of the zone in Google Cloud DNS.

I believe that up to this point, I did not make a mistake. Show me how wrong I am 😉

Now, I am very confused as to which step I should take from here. I thought I have to create a record of some type under the zone to map the address to my nginx jail, but I can’t figure out the type of record and the IP address to provide.

Moreover, the second confusing point for me is the Dynamic DNS. My home network has a dynamic IP address. On Google Domain, I have a Synthetic record created with a subdomain (e.g. which gave me credentials to plug into the client service on TrueNas to communicate my IP address to Google. 1. Is this DynamicDNS Synthetic record still working despite having the name server changed to the custom name servers; 2. How can I set records pointing to the dynamic address instead of a static IPv4 address (record A)?

Thank you for the guidance, I am very lost..

external hard drive – Method for testing USB 3.0 devices for proper electrical setup?

I have about a dozen USB 3.0 devices per machine at my office (external hard drives) on both Windows 10 and Ubuntu. I have noticed that when you get to this scale, USB 3.0 starts being less reliable and devices, ports, or hubs may randomly disconnect. Sometimes this is caused by sudden power draw (such as plugging in a portable HDD without an external power adapter), but sometimes it seems some devices or ports are just wired incorrectly. For example, there is one USB port on my machine where anything being plugged into it causes the other devices to momentarily disconnect.

How can I test that ports and devices are meeting the USB 3.0 spec?

Mission Control (expose) disabled by CASSPP test setup

I recently setup my son’s 10.15.7 OS X mb pro to take the CASSPP test. They require that you load up a special profile that turns off a bunch of stuff, as described here:

That all went fine, as did, for the most part, the annoying mess of manual stuff you have to do to undo the damage wrought by installing the new profile. (See section “Steps to Restore Settings”). Everything came back EXCEPT mission control (expose). I usually have expose hooked to my hot corners, and I can hook pretty much anything else (e.g., enter screen saver) to the hot corners and they work fine, but expose (mission control) seems to be simply dead. It’s not dead for other accounts, just the one we did the new profile to. And it’s dead to the function keys as well (f3, I guess). I even tried using terminal commands (defaults), rebooting multiple times, resetting the SCM — pretty much everything you can think of, but I can’t get mc/expose to work.

Any further advice on how to force it on?


apache2 – Apache shows Magento directory index after installation (local dev setup)

So this is a bit of a debugging question, but I do not have any idea what else to try.

I am new to Magento and I wanted to set up a local instance of it to fiddle around.
I followed effectively this tutorial. After everything is done, trying to open the Magento site on browser merely shows the index of the directory Magento is installed on, as shown below:

On the same machine, another test pure php page works fine.
I will post the Apache configuration of the site and the configuration of Magento as shown by the magento config:show command. Feel free to ask whatever other configuration or log is needed to find out what is happening.

Site Apache configuration:

<VirtualHost *:80>
     ServerAdmin admin@localhost
     DocumentRoot /var/www/magento2.4/pub

     <Directory /var/www/html/magento2.4/pub>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride All
        Order allow,deny
        allow from all
#       Require all granted

     ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
     CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

Magento config output:

$ sudo -u www-data /var/www/magento2.4/bin/magento config:show
yotpo/module_info/yotpo_installation_date - 2021-05-08
yotpo/sync_settings/orders_sync_start_date - 2021-05-08
catalog/search/engine - elasticsearch7
catalog/search/elasticsearch7_server_hostname - localhost
catalog/search/elasticsearch7_server_port - 9200
catalog/category/root_id - 2
web/seo/use_rewrites - 1
web/unsecure/base_url - http://localhost/
general/locale/code - en_US
general/locale/timezone - America/Chicago
general/region/display_all - 1
general/region/state_required - AU,BG,BR,CA,CH,CN,CO,EE,ES,HR,IN,IT,LT,LV,MX,PL,RO,US,UY
currency/options/base - USD
currency/options/default - USD
currency/options/allow - USD
analytics/subscription/enabled - 1
crontab/default/jobs/analytics_subscribe/schedule/cron_expr - 0 * * * *
crontab/default/jobs/analytics_collect_data/schedule/cron_expr - 00 02 * * *
msp_securitysuite_recaptcha/frontend/enabled - 0
msp_securitysuite_recaptcha/backend/enabled - 0
twofactorauth/duo/application_key - FLUe5W1ndlNSCOt5ah5IUluRgIbO2ahoz8pWOVykoky06biGd0Aisvdw1slOIIfX
connector_dynamic_content/external_dynamic_content_urls/passcode - V1QrRRz31I7TUG0TZ1RDJZE7eRxFxaiR
connector_automation/review_settings/allow_non_subscribers - 1
connector_configuration/abandoned_carts/allow_non_subscribers - 1
sync_settings/addressbook/allow_non_subscribers - 1
connector_developer_settings/system_alerts/user_roles - 1

Elastic search ping command output:

$ curl -XGET localhost:9200
  "name" : "user-pc",
  "cluster_name" : "elasticsearch",
  "cluster_uuid" : "RfVO4Tj6TcCQWwyDegap3g",
  "version" : {
    "number" : "7.12.1",
    "build_flavor" : "default",
    "build_type" : "deb",
    "build_hash" : "3186837139b9c6b6d23c3200870651f10d3343b7",
    "build_date" : "2021-04-20T20:56:39.040728659Z",
    "build_snapshot" : false,
    "lucene_version" : "8.8.0",
    "minimum_wire_compatibility_version" : "6.8.0",
    "minimum_index_compatibility_version" : "6.0.0-beta1"
  "tagline" : "You Know, for Search"

.htaccess file contents:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/pub/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/setup/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/update/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/dev/
RewriteRule .* /pub/$0 (L)
DirectoryIndex index.php

Apache error log has nothing generated whenever I access the site.

Below are the contents added to the Apache access logs when I access the site: - - (09/May/2021:19:52:43 +0300) "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 1036 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:90.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/90.0" - - (09/May/2021:19:52:43 +0300) "GET /icons/blank.gif HTTP/1.1" 304 179 "http://localhost/" "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:90.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/90.0" - - (09/May/2021:19:52:43 +0300) "GET /icons/unknown.gif HTTP/1.1" 304 179 "http://localhost/" "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:90.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/90.0" - - (09/May/2021:19:52:43 +0300) "GET /icons/text.gif HTTP/1.1" 304 180 "http://localhost/" "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:90.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/90.0" - - (09/May/2021:19:52:43 +0300) "GET /icons/folder.gif HTTP/1.1" 304 179 "http://localhost/" "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:90.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/90.0"

Apache modules loaded:

$ apache2ctl -M
AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
Loaded Modules:
 core_module (static)
 so_module (static)
 watchdog_module (static)
 http_module (static)
 log_config_module (static)
 logio_module (static)
 version_module (static)
 unixd_module (static)
 access_compat_module (shared)
 alias_module (shared)
 auth_basic_module (shared)
 authn_core_module (shared)
 authn_file_module (shared)
 authz_core_module (shared)
 authz_host_module (shared)
 authz_user_module (shared)
 autoindex_module (shared)
 deflate_module (shared)
 dir_module (shared)
 env_module (shared)
 filter_module (shared)
 mime_module (shared)
 mpm_prefork_module (shared)
 negotiation_module (shared)
 php7_module (shared)
 reqtimeout_module (shared)
 rewrite_module (shared)
 setenvif_module (shared)
 status_module (shared)

I made sure multiple times to convert the permissions of all the files in the directory to www-data user, recursively.
Any help appreciated.

EDIT: So I changed my DocumentRoot to /var/www/magento2.4/pub. Now I get a page with no css apparently:

And every link I try is a 404:

The rest of the configuration is the same. pub folder has its own default .htaccess file.

How to Setup Secure Remote Desktops With VNC on Your VPS

How to Setup Secure Remote Desktops With VNC on Your VPSMost of what you do with your VPS may take place either at the command line or by interacting with various web pages.  But what if you need to run a desktop GUI application?  That’s where VNC (Virtual Network Computing) comes in handy.  You can “remote desktop” into your VPS.

In this tutorial, I’ll setup a Gnome desktop on Debian 10 and connect to it from both macOS and  Windows.  Because VNC is not a secure protocol, we won’t serve it over the Internet but instead tunnel it over ssh.

In this tutorial, I’m using a Debian 10 VPS at Linode’s Fremont, CA datacenter named  After imaging, I login as root and install the Gnome desktop.

apt-get update
apt-get upgrade
tasksel install desktop gnome-desktop

As you’ll see, there are more than 1,000 packages to install here, so go for a nice walk.  When you come back, install the VNC software itself:

apt-get install vnc4server

Finally, I want the system to start up in GUI as opposed to headless mode, so let’s change the default systemd target.

systemctl set-default

Then to both test this and get the GUI fired up, I’ll just restart the VPS:


I’m going to login as an unprivileged user when I use VNC, so I’ll create an account for myself.

useradd -m -s /bin/bash raindog308
passwd raindog308

I’ll now switch to this account.

su - raindog308

I need to set a VNC password, so I’ll use the vncpasswd command.  Note that VNC only allows passwords up to 8 characters.

raindog308@vnc:~$ vncpasswd
Would you like to enter a view-only password (y/n)? n

Now I can start up a VNC server.

raindog308@vnc:~$ vncserver
/usr/bin/xauth: file /home/raindog308/.Xauthority does not exist

New ' (raindog308)' desktop at :1 on machine

Starting applications specified in /etc/X11/Xvnc-session
Log file is /home/raindog308/.vnc/

Use xtigervncviewer -SecurityTypes VncAuth -passwd /home/raindog308/.vnc/passwd :1 to connect to the VNC server.


Before we go further, let’s check out security.  go back to root and install nmap.

apt-get install nmap

Now do a couple scans.  VNC runs on ports beginning with 5901, where the last digits are the number of the connection.  Let’s see what’s running both on the public interface and on localhost (

root@vnc:~# nmap -p5900-5902
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( ) at 2020-05-24 16:09 PDT
Nmap scan report for (
Host is up (0.000046s latency).
rDNS record for

5900/tcp closed vnc
5901/tcp closed vnc-1
5902/tcp closed vnc-2

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.29 seconds
root@vnc:~# nmap localhost -p5900-5902
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( ) at 2020-05-24 16:09 PDT
Nmap scan report for localhost (
Host is up (0.000027s latency).
Other addresses for localhost (not scanned): ::1

5900/tcp closed vnc
5901/tcp open vnc-1
5902/tcp closed vnc-2

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.25 seconds

So we can see that the default Debian config binds VNC only to localhost, not to the public interface.   This is good!

I can use macOS’s command line to setup the tunnel:

$ ssh -L 5901:localhost:5901
The authenticity of host ' (x.x.x.x)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:6I33xSZa6+028+2VswynZWH+ztTPQscUzeaAeJLsKQA.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/(fingerprint))? yes
Warning: Permanently added ',x.x.x.x' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.'s password:
Linux 4.19.0-9-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.19.118-2 (2020-04-29) x86_64

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
Last login: Sun May 24 16:10:29 2020 from x.x.x.x

Next go to Finder and type Command-K.  Then specify the VNC connection to connect to:

And when prompted, enter the password you setup with vncpasswd:

And now you’ve joined.

Note that closing the ssh session will kill your VNC connection as well.

To tunnel from Windows, we’ll use the venerable PuTTY program.

Start PuTTY and then go to the Connect > SSH > Tunnels section.  Under Source Port, enter 5901.  Under Destination, enter  Then click Add.

Now go back the Session and enter the hostname and a name for the session (can be the same as the hostname) and click Save.

Now, with that session selected, click Open.  Enter your credentials and login.

I’m using RealVNC as the VNC client (also known as the “viewer”).  Star the program and then enter in the VNC Server section.  Then click Connect.

The VNC password prompt appears.  Enter the password you entered with the vncpasswd program.

And now you’re logged in to your desktop.


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networking – trying to setup ip addresses on my network

enter image description here
here’s my schema , i’m trying to set up ip addresses to be able to ping from the first floor ( etage 1 ) to the second ( etage 2) , i tried setting up an ip address with the gateway to pcD , and with the gateway but im not able to ping please help