Do browsers correctly interpret rel tags in links created by PHP’s htmlspecialchars()?

The logic of PHP’s htmlspecialchars() is such that, according to its manual, “Certain characters have special significance in HTML, and should be represented by HTML entities if they are to preserve their meanings.”

And so, something like this

$str = "This is some <b>bold</b> text.";
echo htmlspecialchars($str);

shows on the browser as

This is some <b>bold</b> text.

but in the View Source output as

<!DOCTYPE html>
This is some &lt;b&gt;bold&lt;/b&gt; text.

My question is:

Do browsers understand link rel tags (e.g. rel="noopener") when created this way? In the View Source, I see something like

&lt;a href=&quot;; rel=&quot;noopener&quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot;&gt;Page&lt;/a&gt;:&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;

whereas on the browser the link appears normally and the url opens in a new tab, as expected. If the browser can correctly interpret &quot; target=&quot;_blank&quot; as target="_blank", is it a fair assumption that it also understands rel=&quot;noopener&quot; as rel="noopener"?

Because this has obvious security implications.

views: link rel = "previous" and link rel = "next"

In my opinion, I want to add a token for the previous and next page like this, but it doesn't exist even if the Token module is installed.

In Drupal 7, I used "Clean Pagination" but there is no stable version of Drupal 8. The version is in development and there is a problem that has not been fixed yet.

The minimally maintained module receives only maintenance repairs.

rel – Is there an effective way to declare the informative relationship of a web page with multiple social media accounts?

At For each article page on a certain website, I would like to indicate a relationship between that article page and multiple social network accounts.

At least, whenever possible, I would like each article-based web page for social media accounts to:

  • the brand of the website
  • the article publisher brand
  • the author of the article

It is worth noting that:

  • the website is always the same
  • editor-contributor sometimes changes
  • the author-contributor often changes

E.g. I understand that a conventional link to a Twitter account looks like this:

Which is great, but given that (I just found out) rel="me" is the XFN equivalent of rel="author", I conclude that this is an appropriate form to use only when referring to the author-contributor.

So what should I use for the publisher-contributor and for the website itself?


For the website's Twitter account, could you (possibly) use rel="alternate" or should i be using rel="(something else)"?

Initially i thought i couldn't use rel="author" or rel="publisher" to link to social media accounts, because I was already using those rel attributes to express relationships with specific web pages.

But now it occurs to me that I could use rel="publisher" more than once, like this:


How should I approach it? -ing a web document to three separate twitter accounts?


I notice that I can use the following:

  • Website:
  • Author:

But that is still only two out of three.

Also, it's Twitter specific and I'm looking for something that can be applied to any social media platform (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.)

sitemap – Is there a SEO or pagerank benefit in grouping (rel = "alternate") of multilingual websites (using multiple domains) together?

I am building this website that will be multi-region / multi-language.

And for that, Google suggests the following:

enter the image description here

As my domain will have to change according to the language of the country, I will have to go with Option 1.

A country-specific domain.



Since they all have different domains, if I don't let Google know that they are the same website, they will all be treated as unique unique websites.

Google suggests that you can "group" them using one of those 3 options:

enter the image description here

If I'm doing it, I'll use the Sitemap option.

But my question is:

What do I gain by letting Google know that all of these websites are the same, but in different languages? What will be different if I let Google think that they are all unique and separate websites?

Do I earn some SEO or pagerank doing that?

I mean, what if I get a lot of traffic from my website in English? Does that benefit my results from other languages ​​in the other domains?

meta tags: is it legitimate for rel prev / next links to indicate a circular sequence of pages?

First of all, yes, Google no longer notes rel prev / next and he hasn't done it (officially) for almost a year. Google officially deprecated rel prev / next as a tracking / indexing factor in March 21, 2019:

Unofficially, Google stopped taking note of rel prev / next Several years before that.

But, as with any web document metainformation, just because Google is not using rel prev / next, does not mean that it is not useful information from the library, independently.

In fact, Google itself even highlights this:

rel prev / next can, not least, help accessibility and represent a valuable resource pre-fetching Suggestion for browsers.

So, here I am, one year after the official announcement, I still use rel prev / next perfectly happy to create a chain of product pages that show and discuss one of a set of associated products.

To date, I have use rel prev / next To indicate a straight line of product pages from the first page of the product to the last page of the product:

Product page 1 ==> Product page 2 ==> Product page 3



  • Product Page 1 doesn't have a ; Y
  • Product Page 3 doesn't have a

But would there be something meaningless and / or illegitimate about giving Product Page 3 a which points to Product Page 1 and vice versa?

e.g. Product 3 ==> Product 1 ==> Product 2 ==> Product 3 ==> Product 1

I would very much like to implement this, but I want to check first that creating a circular sequence of pages is not, in principle, an abuse of pagination, somehow.

Queue the custom font file with rel = "preload"

I am using a custom font on my WP site. It is now included with @font-face css attribute. But I wonder if there is any way to wp_enqueue this file with the attribute rel="preload" and may be some other attributes. Then you see something like this in the browser:

Thanks in advance.

Sitemap best practices for multilingual websites: should I list my URLs in each language or is it enough to use rel = "alternate" + hreflang?

I am working on the site maps of a multilingual website and I have doubts about the best practices to refer to each language version of a page.

For a little background, the website refers to around 20,000 places with community comments and descriptions. The website is available in 5 languages ​​(; …)

At the moment, my site map only refers to pages in English and on the site map for each page that I specify for each language (as well as English) as recommended by Google.

In Google Search Console, I see that approximately 75% of pages with valid coverage are described as "indexed, not submitted on Sitemap", which makes me think that the alternative link with the hreflang attribute is not enough to "send" the Google page to index it.

Should I list the pages in the 5 languages ​​on my site map and use them too? in each link?

Google adds new options to rel = NOFOLLOW Attribute

When nofollow was introduced, Google would not count any links marked in this way as a signal to use within our search algorithms. This has now changed. All link attributes [sponsored, UGC and nofollow] are treated as clues about which links to consider or exclude within the Search.

cache – rel = "dns-prefetch" / rel = "preconnect" vs expiration headers in the distant future …?

I have always been a big fan of the expiration headings of distant futures. The first visit on the home page of my site results in 40 HTTP requests, but a subsequent visit comes to 1, with a response as agile as you would expect. This is great, very happy.

However, I just learned about dns-prefetch and preconnect. I can see that they would help (marginally) with a load for the first time, but I suppose that the additional overhead is a bad thing in subsequent uploads, since I would be starting some DNS searches / SSL link protocols for domains that I don't & # 39; I don't even get used to it.

What is the best practice, or how have you approached this?