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dnd 5e – Is Goliath weight range reasonable?


The Skinny:

If you’d like, you should definitely consider allowing for characters to gain weight dynamically! This could even potentially provide a relevant in-character explanation for increases to the character’s STR modifier that they may earn through leveling.

Shorter Answer:

Is it reasonable, when creating a Goliath, to use weight way higher than the one provided in the EE Player’s Companion?

With the proportions provided in the EE Player’s Companion, a Goliath looks more like a professional basketball player (Yao Ming) than a Strongman.

I agree, artwork depicting Goliaths in D&D literature argues that they look like Strongmen. However, the tallest strongman competitor in the 2016 Arnold Strongman Classic is Hafþór Björnsson measured at 6′ 9″ (206 cm) and 397 lbs (180 kg), which is shorter than the shortest Goliath and heavier than the heaviest Golaith. To better fit the image you see in the artwork, it’s reasonable to increase the Goliath’s weight range +110-175 lbs (50-80 kg).

Long Answer:

Goliath To Strongman Comparison

Consider Hafþór Björnsson (GoT, “The Mountain”) who is a Strongman just like Mariusz Pudzianowski. He’s what I would consider the prototypical “IRL Goliath”, almost tall enough and definitely muscular enough.

On Wikipedia, he is listed with a height of 6′ 9″ (206 cm) (~4″/10 cm shorter than Goliath’s lower-bound height) and a weight of 397 lbs (180 kg) (~66 lbs/30 kg heavier than Goliath’s upper-bound weight). In the World’s Strongest Man, he’s placed 2nd in 2014 and 2016 and 3rd in 2012, 2013 and 2015, so he’s a Goliath of a man.

As you said, “(Goliaths) seem to be all fairly well-built, being a towering heaps of muscle” – Björnsson’s frame is very similar to the Goliaths I see depicted in D&D literature:

Artist's Depiction of a Goliath

Based on this and what you’ve already mentioned on Mariusz Pudzianowski, a Goliath ought to be 110-175 lbs ( 50-80 kg) heavier than their starting weight range specified in the Elemental Evil: Player’s Companion.

Goliath = Professional Basketball Player?

In professional sports, the NBA has the tallest players by average. In basketball, the center position is played by the tallest players. The average height of an NBA center is roughly 6′ 11″ (211 cm) tall and weighs roughly 250 lbs (113.5 kg). Assuming this chart’s accuracy, of course cited by BusinessInsider:

Average Heights & Weights of Professional Sports Players

The average NBA center’s height nearly matches the lower-bound of the Goliath’s height. The average NBA center is ~33 lbs (15 kg) lighter than the Goliath’s lower-bound weight.

Consider Dwight Howard (center for Houston Rockets). He is listed on Wikipedia with a height of 6′ 11″ (211 cm) (nearly matching the lower-bound of the Goliath’s height) and a weight of 265 lbs (120 kg) (~22 lbs/10 kg lighter than the Goliath’s lower-bound weight). While he is well-built, he’s way leaner than the Goliath artwork I showed earlier. So, he’s not a good comparison.

Consider Yao Ming, who used to play the center position for the Houston Rockets in the NBA. He is listed on Wikipedia with a height of 7′ 6″ (229 cm) (middle of the Goliath’s height range) and a weight of 311 lbs (141 kg) (middle of the Goliath’s weight range) – smack in the middle of the Goliath’s height/weight ranges!

Assuming Goliaths and humans have similar anatomy & body composition, Yao Ming is the prototypical Goliath. The average Goliath (per the Elemental Evil Player’s Companion) looks like Yao Ming.

Possibility for Dynamic Weight Increase

As @SteveJessop pointed out, an athlete’s weight fluctuates over years of training and dieting (e.g., Muhammad Ali). USAToday has a list of all of Muhammad Ali matches. I think we can agree that Ali followed an intense training regimen and a strict diet (esp. while preparing for matches). At his lightest weigh-in, Ali was 188 lbs (85 kg) and at his heaviest weigh-in, Ali was 227 lbs (103 kg) (excluding a 236 lb outlier for last match). Ali’s relative body weight change over his professional boxing career compares closely to the Goliath race’s relative body weight variation:

$Ali_{change} = frac{(227text{ lbs} – 188text{ lbs})}{227text{ lbs}} approx 17.1806 % $

$Goliath_{change} = frac{(340text{ lbs} – 280text{ lbs})}{340text{ lbs}} approx 17.6471 % $

NOTE: I got the Goliaths’ weight variance from their starting weight range, while Ali’s weight change is calculated over 20 years of his athletic career.

Thus, it is reasonable to allow for the character’s weight to increase further by as much as 18 % over the next 20 years of the character’s life – as Ali’s spanned roughly 20 years. For example, a young Goliath character who weighed 340 lbs (154 kg) at character creation could weigh 401 lbs (182 kg) (18 % increase, +61 lbs) after 20 years of training (adventuring, battling, smithing, etc.) in-game time.

Yes, Goliath = NBA Pro

When picturing the Goliath described in the Elemental Evil Player’s Companion, you should picture Yao Ming – not a Strongman:

Convenient comparison of Yao Ming to average human

If you’d like to tweak Goliath measurements to fit a Strongman (Hafþór Björnsson or Mariusz Pudzianowski), then you have two options.

  1. Increase starting weight range around 110-175 lbs (50-80 kg) OR decrease starting height range by ~1′ 4″ (40 cm).

  2. Interpret the starting weight/height ranges as those of a young Goliath and then dynamically increase the weight of the Goliath as he/she matures, grows, and strengthens.

Can I sell my clothing within the $10-$20 range?

If I buy clothing in bulk from a supplier and use a 3PL, is it still realistic to sell them within the $10-$20 range?

dnd 5e – Is there any way to increase the max range of a glaive or similar weapon?

dnd 5e – Is there any way to increase the max range of a glaive or similar weapon? – Role-playing Games Stack Exchange

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google sheets – Remove All Protections on Selected Range

I am trying to remove all protections on a range. I created a script that adds a protection when a user pushes a button. If the user pushes the button twice, it adds the protection twice. I came up with this script, mostly through recording macros, to remove the protection, but it only removes one protection. If a user pushes the button twice, this button only removes one protection and leaves the other protection (thus, leaving the range protected when it shouldn’t be). Any advice on how I can remove ALL protections on the range?

var allProtections = spreadsheet.getActiveSheet().getProtections(SpreadsheetApp.ProtectionType.RANGE);
  var matchingProtections = allProtections.filter(function(existingProtection) {
  return existingProtection.getRange().getA1Notation() == 'C4:F30';
  var protection = matchingProtections(0);

How do I refer to dynamic range in google sheet?

Here is my sheet:

     A       B            C
1    ID      VALUE        MY VAL
2    1        500         = AVERAGE(B2:B2)
3    2        400         = AVERAGE(B2:B3)
4    3        550         = AVERAGE(B2:B4)
5    4        700         = AVERAGE(B2:B5)
6    5       1200         = AVERAGE(B2:B6)


This is a very long sheet so I can’t input the AVERAGE(B2:Bx) manually. Is there any good ideas to solve this?

c++ – How to sort segments by their angle relative to the specific angle range?


I’m trying to implement a simple algorithm that will sort segments by their angle based on the given angle range. Each of these segments has one common end. These sorted segments will be later used in another algorithm that will generate triangles in order to keep track of road completeness.

Segment description

Each segment has its angle relative to x-axis with a range from 0 to 360 degrees. Each segment is described as two points with x and y coordinate each.

Current status

I have a road map that has two chains of segments: inner segment chain and outer segment chain (marked as black). It is guaranteed that these two chains of segments don’t intersect with each other. Finish line and starting line are marked as green segments and won’t be described further.

In order to keep track of road completeness (when a user drives a vehicle), I generated additional segments – checkpoints (marked as red) which later will be used as triangles. Checkpoints are generated from the inner segment’s first point. The checkpoint always has the beginning connected to the inner segment and the end to the outer segment. Please checkout the exemplary road map.

enter image description here

In the below images the red segments represent checkpoints (segments that have to be sorted). The blue line represents the x-axis. Black segments represent the inner and outer edges of the road. The purple arrow represents the direction of a user’s vehicle. The red numbers represent desired order of segments. Black numbers represent the order (index) of inner segments. It is good to notice that all the checkpoints have the same origin and the angle range is specified by two inner segments.

enter image description here

The biggest problem I encounter is the changing angle from 0 to 360 degrees. I already tried to measure angle difference and I’ve sorted angles from the smallest to the greatest but it only worked in some maps. I think that the order of the inner segments matter in this case.

mathematical optimization – Increment FindMinimum range

I have a function SQ(b,zQ,zh) where I want to find at which zQ it is a minimum. The parameters are b=0.1, zh=(0.1,0.9) increment by 0.1 so zh has 9 values.

d = 3;
ag = 10;
pg = 10;
wp = 20;
f(z_, zh_) := 1 - (z/zh)^(d + 1);
torootsig(b_?NumericQ, sig_?NumericQ, zQ_?NumericQ, zh_?NumericQ) := Module({br, sigr, zQr, zhr}, {br, sigr, zQr, zhr} = Rationalize({b, sig, zQ, zh}, 0); br - NIntegrate(z^d/Sqrt(f(z, zhr) (zQr^(2 d) (1 + (sigr^2/f(zQr, zhr))) - z^(2 d))), {z, 0, zQr}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxRecursion -> 20))
sig(b_?NumericQ, zQ_?NumericQ, zh_?NumericQ) := sig /. FindRoot(torootsig(b, sig, zQ, zh), {sig, -2 zh, 0}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxIterations -> 100)
intSQ1(b_?NumericQ, zQ_?NumericQ, zh_?NumericQ) := Module({br, zQr, zhr}, {br, zQr, zhr} = Rationalize({b, zQ, zh}, 0); (-1/(d - 1)) (1/(zQr^(2 d) (1 + sig(br, zQr, zhr)^2/f(zQr, zhr)))) NIntegrate(z^d Sqrt(f(z, zhr)/(1 - (1/(zQr^(2 d) (1 + sig(br, zQr, zhr)^2/f(zQr, zhr)))) z^(2 d))), {z, 0, zQr}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxRecursion -> 20))
intSQ2(b_?NumericQ, zQ_?NumericQ, zh_?NumericQ) := Module({br, zQr, zhr}, {br, zQr, zhr} = Rationalize({b, zQ, zh}, 0); (-1/(2 zhr^(d + 1))) ((d + 1)/(d - 1)) NIntegrate(z Sqrt((1 - (1/(zQr^(2 d) (1 + sig(br, zQr, zhr)^2/f(zQr, zhr)))) z^(2 d))/f(z, zhr)), {z, 0, zQr}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxRecursion -> 20))
intSQ3(b_?NumericQ, zQ_?NumericQ, zh_?NumericQ) := Module({br, zQr, zhr}, {br, zQr, zhr} = Rationalize({b, zQ, zh}, 0); (1/zhr)^(d + 1) NIntegrate(z/Sqrt(f(z, zhr) (1 - (1/(zQr^(2 d) (1 + sig(br, zQr, zhr)^2/f(zQr, zhr)))) z^(2 d))), {z, 0, zQr}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxRecursion -> 20))
SQ(b_?NumericQ, zQ_?NumericQ, zh_?NumericQ) := Module({br, zQr, zhr}, {br, zQr, zhr} = Rationalize({b, zQ, zh}, 0); (-Sqrt(f(zQr, zhr) (1 - (1/(zQr^(2 d) (1 + sig(br, zQr, zhr)^2/f(zQr, zhr)))) zQr^(2 d)))/((d - 1) zQr^(d - 1)) + intSQ1(br, zQr, zhr) + intSQ2(br, zQr, zhr) + intSQ3(br, zQr, zhr) + 1/zQr^(d - 1))/4 )

FindMinimum(SQ(0.1, zQ, 0.1), {zQ, 0.0993, 0.0999}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxIterations -> 20)
{41.70848808, {zQ -> 0.09987512206}}


FindMinimum(SQ(0.1, zQ, 0.9), {zQ, 0.83, 0.86}, AccuracyGoal -> ag, PrecisionGoal -> pg, WorkingPrecision -> wp, MaxIterations -> 20)
{0.2745876051, {zQ -> 0.8454219108}}


Table(FindMinimum(SQ(0.1,zQ,n/10),{zQ,(93/100) (n/10),n/10},AccuracyGoal->ag,PrecisionGoal->pg,WorkingPrecision->wp,MaxIterations->100),{n,1,9,1})//AbsoluteTiming

I have found at which zQ is the minimum for the two extreme values of zh. For zh=0.1 the minimum is at around zQ ~ 0.998 zh, for zh=0.9 the minimum is at around zQ ~ 0.939 zh.

The problem is as zh goes to lower values FindMinimum will fail for some zQ and below. For example, for zh=0.1, the range I put in FindMinimum is {zQ, 0.0993, 0.0999} but if I change the zQmin=0.0993 to zQmin=0.098, SQ will fail there.

My question is, is there a way to write a code to increment zQmin from some value to some higher value (in this case zQmin = {(93/100) (n/10), (994/1000) (n/10)}) so that when FindMinimum fails it will increment until FindMinimum does not fail. I’m not sure if I’m framing this problem correctly, I was also thinking of maybe Conditionals like If, For, While.

My related post will be useful,
FindRoot with a big range.

The range of $int_M kappa_g ds$ where $g$ varies in all possible real analytic metrics on $M$

Let $M$ be a real analytic open surface(A non compact 2 dimensional manifold without boundary).

For every number $lambdain mathbb{R}$, is there a real analytic Riemannian metric on $M$ with
$$int_M kappa ds=lambda$$

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