blockchain – All Bitcoin Public Keys with non-zero balance

You can’t get a database of all such public keys, but you can get some of them.

An address, as you know, is a hash of a public key. When somebody sends coins to an address, you can think of the associated public key as having a positive balance, but nobody else necessarily knows what the public key actually is. (You can’t compute the public key directly from the address, because hash functions are effectively one way.)

However, in order to spend the coins from that address, the spending transaction has to reveal the public key (so that the spending transaction’s signature can be verified). So what you need to look for are addresses with a positive balance that have also had some coins spent. I am not aware of any simple way to do this short of making an index of all transactions. It is possible you could rig up a way to produce such a list by querying a fully-synced bitcoind using -txindex (so that all transactions are indexed), but it seems likely to be inefficient.

But as a randomly chosen example, consider the address 1Q6NNpHM1pyh6kEqzinBhEgsRc3nmpTGLm. It is associated with some public key which has a balance of BTC 259.7299, but since (as of this writing) no coins have been spent from that address, nobody except the owner of the address knows what the public key is. So your database will necessarily be incomplete; probably very incomplete.

In particular, most people use a new address for each of their transactions (including change addresses), in which case the transaction that reveals the public key for an address also spends all its coins (so that the balance is now zero), and that public key will likely never be used again. This strategy is used partly because certain theoretical cryptographic attacks are easier if the public key is known, and this strategy mitigates the risk from such attacks; it also increases privacy by making it harder to look at patterns of transactions to try to deduce who the address belongs to.

Another case in which you can learn the public key is so-called P2PK transactions, where the output script includes the actual destination public key, instead of merely its associated address. These were common in the past, but these days all standard clients use the P2PKH transaction type, in which only the address is used.

Where can i change image but not change URL link of public image?

i use imgur.com for image upload,

but now i want use static image link, ex: www.example.com/ABC.png

After change image, but this www.example.com/ABC.png dont change.

What host or solution can i do it?

Thanks

public key infrastructure – How is the digital certificate sent alongside digital signatures?

Most tutorials on the net only mention sending the digital signature attached to the document, but without the digital signature certificate, it’ll be impossible for receivers to verify the signature. I’m assuming that the digital certificate is somehow sent alongside the signature but I can’t seem to find any source mentioning that.

What is the probability of different public key hash that produce the same checksum value

checksum = 1st4byte(sha256(sha256(PubKeyHash)))

checksum1 = 1st4byte(sha256(sha256(PubKeyHash1)))

What is the P(checksum == checksum1)? where PubKeyHash != PubKeyHash1

Is it 1/(2^^32)?

Can Facebook’s Custom privacy setting ever include the public?

On Facebook, I occasionally see certain friends with their privacy settings set to Custom. When I comment on their posts, I don’t want my comments to show up publicly, but I can’t know whether they will for sure because the Custom privacy setting is all that’s shown.

From experimenting myself, it doesn’t seem possible to set the Custom privacy setting to include the public, although I suppose there is always a possibility with Facebook’s increasing tendency to test new features differently across regions.

Can the Custom privacy setting ever include the public, or will Friends of Friends always be as public as it gets?

PUBLIC ECDSA KEY – Bitcoin Stack Exchange

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How do I get bip32 public key and address from private key in python?

I have checked related questions and did not find answer. I also tried to use “secp256k1”, “bip-0032”, “seedrecover” and did not succeed.

When my input is a private key in the format “‘xprv’…” I get problems related to decoding issues, or length of the key (like in the module ‘ecdsa’ I get ‘ecdsa.keys.MalformedPointError: Invalid length of private key, received 77, expected 32’) and so on.

I am asking for simple python-3 code snippet to get the public key and address or a simple mathematical explanation so I can code it myself.
I know that bip32 is related to deriving keys and addresses but I do not need the derived ones, but the ones which are corresponding to the given private key.

A code that work for other private keys and do not work here:

def get_public_from_private(private_key):

#   Checks if the input is in valid hexadecimal format, if it is not hexadecimal but it is base58,
#   it converts it to hexadecimal, otherwise it returns an error.

if not utilities.is_hexadecimal(private_key):
    if utilities.is_base58check(private_key):
        private_key = Bitcoin().__convert_private_wif_to_hex(private_key)
    else:
        raise Exception('From Bitcoin::__get_public_from_private::Exception caught: ' + "the key format is "
                                                                                        "not hexadecimal")
#   From that point, key is valid hexadecimal private key.
private_key_bytes = codecs.decode(private_key, 'hex')
# Get ECDSA public key
key = ecdsa.SigningKey.from_string(private_key_bytes, curve=ecdsa.SECP256k1).verifying_key
key_bytes = key.to_string()
key_hex = codecs.encode(key_bytes, 'hex')
# Add bitcoin byte
bitcoin_byte = b'04'
public_key = bitcoin_byte + key_hex
return public_key.decode("utf-8")

segregated witness – Get public or private key from address with C-lightning

I’m studying Lightning network and I use c-lightning.
I can Get a new address with newaddr method, but I can’t find private key.
My address is bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrg, how can I retrieve it’s public key?
Where Can I find it’s private key?

$ bitcoin-cli validateaddress bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrgj                                                              │
{                                                                                                                                       │
  "isvalid": true,                                                                                                                      │
  "address": "bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrgj",                                                                            │
  "scriptPubKey": "0014de2cb879f28015ca1cfafa3005127e34b612f96f",                                                                       │
  "isscript": false,                                                                                                                    │
  "iswitness": true,                                                                                                                    │
  "witness_version": 0,                                                                                                                 │
  "witness_program": "de2cb879f28015ca1cfafa3005127e34b612f96f"                                                                         │
} 

segregated witness – Get public key from Segwit Address and private key in lightning network

I’m studying Lightning network and I use c-lightning.
I can Get a new address with newaddr method, but I can’t find private key.
My address is bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrg, how can I retrieve it’s public key?
Where Can I find it’s private key?

$ bitcoin-cli validateaddress bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrgj                                                              │
{                                                                                                                                       │
  "isvalid": true,                                                                                                                      │
  "address": "bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrgj",                                                                            │
  "scriptPubKey": "0014de2cb879f28015ca1cfafa3005127e34b612f96f",                                                                       │
  "isscript": false,                                                                                                                    │
  "iswitness": true,                                                                                                                    │
  "witness_version": 0,                                                                                                                 │
  "witness_program": "de2cb879f28015ca1cfafa3005127e34b612f96f"                                                                         │
} 

france – Are French beaches open for the public in general?

Most beaches should have reopened but rules could differ locally, the best way to be absolutely sure that there are no restrictions is to check for signs before going onto the beach.

The main thing to know is that whenever there were restrictions, it was usually a ban on so-called “static“ use of the beach, i.e. you could go there, swim, surf, walk or run and then go back home but you are not allowed to sunbath or spend the day at the beach. I have never heard of slots or reservations on French beaches. Right now, even “static“ acitivites should be allowed but it is still forbidden to gather groups of more than 10 people.