networks – Developing the network topology mapper?

Developing the network topology mapper?
Hi, I am developing a network topology mapper. I'm hit at one point and I don't know what to do. So far what I saw was a different network management system using SNMP, lldp and cdp and different protocols. I can access MIB devices using SNMP to get information. But I don't know how to find a link between the devices. This is the point where it catches my attention. The topology mapper should be able to discover different networks in the company. so that anyone can guide me or point me in the right direction.

networks: how to add a second additional network interface in Ubuntu 18.04 VM in OpenStack

I have a public interface in a Ubuntu 18.04 VM hosted by a provider that uses Openstack. Now I want to add a second additional interface to the internal network. I am not sure how to do that.

Using the web interface of the hosting provider, I can add the internal network. After adding this, I can see the network interface but no IP address is assigned. Restart doesn't help here either.

For example ip a sample

1: lo:  mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens3:  mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fa:16:3e:e7:0b:19 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet (MY PUBLIC IP)/24 brd 185.110.173.255 scope global dynamic ens3
       valid_lft 84480sec preferred_lft 84480sec
    inet6 fe80::f816:3eff:fee7:b19/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: ens7:  mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fa:16:3e:e3:4f:3f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

My public IP appears but the interface I added has no IP address.

Add the ens7 interface for /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml as follows

# This file is generated from information provided by
# the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.
# To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file
# /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:
# network: {config: disabled}
network:
    version: 2
    ethernets:
        ens3:
            dhcp4: true
            match:
                macaddress: fa:16:3e:e7:0b:19
            set-name: ens3
        ens7:
            dhcp4: true
            match:
                macaddress: fa:16:3e:e3:4f:3f
            set-name: ens7

When I run netplan apply My SSH connection is disconnected immediately and I can no longer access the machine from the Internet.

When I use the console and run ip a However, I see exactly the results I expected. ens3 has the correct public IP and ens7 It has the correct private ip.

I also have a Ubuntu 16.04 VM. Using that image in the cloud I could do this by editing /etc/network/interfaces.d/50-cloud-init.cfg and adding

auto eth1
iface eth1 inet dhcp

But now I want to do something similar in Ubuntu 18.04 VM.

Why can't I access the machine using SSH from the Internet? IP configuration looks good.

What is the correct way to add a VM to a second internal private network when using an Ubuntu 18.04 cloud image in OpenStack?

By the way, I am using the Ubuntu cloud image bionic-server-cloudimg-amd64.img

Linux networks: how to forward traffic from a specific domain from apache2 to the LXC container

I am currently running apache2 on my server, but I would like to forward the http (s) traffic requested by a specific host (for example, lxc.example.com) to an LXC container that can be accessed through a local IP address in the box .

I have examined iptables, however, as I understand it, iptables does not handle http (s) traffic, so I can say that there are no forwarding rules based on the hostname I can apply.

I would rather not forward traffic to a specific port (for example, lxc.example.com:8080) since that makes the URL look unprofessional and requires an additional port forwarding configuration.

It seems that there is probably an obvious solution that I am missing, but my searches have not yet revealed anything. Any help would be appreciated.

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networks: do you use the Internet browser through a wireless network without proxy settings while everything else is done by cable?

I have two networks = wired and wireless. Wired is connected to a router, the wireless connection to another router (different networks). Wired only works with proxy settings, Wireless is an Internet access for guests.

I usually use a wired network and if I need to access the Internet without a proxy server, I have to connect to the wireless network and disable the proxy settings for that moment.

Is there any way to have both networks turned on and use a specific browser only through a wireless network? without Proxy settings while wired and proxy settings enabled?

1.I tried to play with Chrome but it inherits the system settings πŸ™
2. I tried using google, I am usually good with google. Not this time πŸ™

OS: Windows 10

computer networks – How do web browsers find the MAC address?

While reading my textbook, I discovered that if you want to access a particular web page, your browser will discover the IP address of the web server that hosts the web page and try to connect to it. Then you will transfer a copy of the website to your computer so you can see it.

However, my concern is … I have discovered that the IP address allows sending data to the local area network of the device, but for the data to be sent to the device itself, the MAC address is needed to transfer data from the network. local area to the device.

BUT, in my textbook, nowhere does it say how the computer's web browser discovers the MAC address of the web server. It says that the computer discovers the IP address of the web server through the Domain Name System (DNS).

So how does the computer discover the MAC address of the server?

The answers would be much appreciated.

Neural networks – regression DNN: the gradient check does not match the back propagation derivatives

I think the problem lies in a bad implementation of the backward propagation, it is the only way I could explain this (gradient check that does not match the backprop derivatives), but I cannot find any error, and the derivatives are fine for me, so I ask if the derivatives I calculate make sense or if there is an error.

About DNN:

I built a 3-layer neural network (1 input, 1 hidden, 1 output).
My goal was regression, so the last layer has 1 neuron, and I used leakyRelu as an activation function in the hidden layer, and no activation function in the output layer. I used the mean square error (MSE) as a cost function. I also used normalization, and I still haven't used it.

On derivatives:

dCost / dALayerOutput = d (1 / m * sum ((ALayerOutput – y) ^ 2)) / dALayerOutput = 2 / m * (ALayerOutput – y) = gives

dCost / DZLayerOutput = dA * dALayerOutput / dZLayerOutput = dA * d (ZLayerOutput) = dA * 1 = dZ (because I don't apply any activation function to the last layer).

dCost / DWeightOutput = dZ * dZLayerOutput / dWeightOutput = dZ * d (WeightOutput * ALayerHidden + BiasOutput) / dWeightOutput = dZ * ALayerHidden = dW

dCost / DBiasOutput = dZ * dZLayerOutput / dBiasOutput = dZ * d (WeightOutput * ALayerHidden + BiasOutput) / dBiasOutput = dZ * 1 = dZ = dB

dCost / DALayerHidden = dZ * dZLayerOutput / dALayerHidden = dZ * d (WeightOutput * ALayerHidden + BiasOutput) / dALayerHidden = dZ * WeightOutput = dA-1

dCost / dZLayerHidden = dA-1 * dALayerHidden / dZLayerHidden = d (leakyRelu (ZLayerHidden)) / dZLayerHidden = dA-1 * dLeakyRelu (dZLayerHidden) = dZ-1

dCost / dWeightHidden = dZ-1 * dZLayerHidden / dWeightHidden = dZ-1 * d (WeightHidden * LayerInput + BiasHidden) / dWeightHidden = dZ-1 * LayerInput = dW-1

dCost / dBiasHidden = dZ-1 * d (WeightHidden * LayerInput + BiasHidden) / dBiasHidden = dZ-1 * 1 = dB-1

On the gradient slope:

netWeightsLayerOutput = netWeightsLayerOutput – (learningRate * dW)

netWeightsLayerHidden = netWeightsLayerHidden – (learningRate * dW-1)

netBiasesLayerOutput = netBiasesLayerOutput – (learningRate * dB)

netBiasesLayerHidden = netBiasesLayerHidden – (learningRate * dB-1)


Did you find any mistakes?

networks: Acme timeout when cert-manager is used to obtain certificates in kubernetes

I have a cluster of 4-node kubernetes implemented with kubespray. I wanted to do nginx to enter, with LetsEncrypt certificates. I followed this guide for cert-manager to start (skipping step 1 because kubespray already set up the cultivator).

I deployed the letsencrypt-staging as ClusterIssuer:

---
apiVersion: certmanager.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: ClusterIssuer
metadata:
  name: letsencrypt-staging
spec:
  acme:
    server: https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
    email: my-email
    privateKeySecretRef:
      name: letsencrypt-staging
    solvers:
      - http01:
          ingress:
            class:  nginx

The port forwarded ports 80 and 443 to the external IP (acquired from metalLB) of the nginx-ingress controller, and I added dns entries for LAN-side requests. At this point, I can access the endpoint through its FQDN in http and https (with the default certificate invalid), both inside my LAN and outside.

But he doesn't get a certificate. When I check the cert-manager pod records, I see the following:

Call GetAccount

cert-manager / controller / clusterissuers "msg" = "ACME account could not be verified" "error" = "Get https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory: tcp MY-WAN- IP: 443: I / O timeout "" related_resource_kind "=" Secret "" related_resource_name "=" letsencrypt-staging "" related_resource_namespace "=" cert-manager "" resource_kind "=" ClusterIssuer "" resource_name "=" letsencrypt -staging "" resource_namespace "=" "

cert-manager / controller / clusterissuers "msg" = "error configuring the sender" "error" = "Get https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory: tcp dial MY-WAN-IP: 443: I / O timeout "" resource_kind "=" ClusterIssuer "" resource_name "=" letsencrypt-staging "" resource_namespace "=" "

cert-manager / controller / clusterissuers "msg" = "re-link the item due to error processing" "error" = "Get https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory: tcp dial MY-WAN -IP: 443: I / O timeout "" key "=" letsencrypt-staging "

When I do it curl -kivL -H 'Host: example.your-domain.com' 'http://my-wan-ip' to test the connection, it connects very well (but provides an invalid certificate in 443). I tried using curl from multiple external sources.

So why do I receive the timeout error when it seems that it can connect well?

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