Am I correct in noting that the lenses do not have names …?
No.Lenses have names, multiple names, such as model numbers and FCC IDs. Manufacturers need a way to track what they do and sell. Some manufacturers also give brand names to their lenses.
Since model numbers often do not convey information that consumers need to determine whether to purchase a lens, the specs themselves also serve as a (common) name. Most manufacturers have only one Current lens model with a given set of specifications. Consumers may refer to lenses with abbreviated names, such as "Nikon 18-55mm", and there will generally only be one current match model. More information is needed when looking at used lenses, but it's not that difficult. If you don't remember if you want the v1 or v2 lens, it probably doesn't matter. If it's important, write it down, bookmark the review, or ask Google.
… when I am looking for a new lens, I can never find a model number.
Whether you can find the model number is a different question than whether it exists. Model numbers for some manufacturers may be for internal use only (not well publicized).
A little search on the Nikon website reveals that the model number of a lens from the aforementioned Nikon kit is: AFS18-55_3.5-5.6GVRII_NT (7C_DL). Note that it is similar to the common name, with no spaces or units of measure. By learning the common name, you are effectively using the model number.
… there must be some advantage to using descriptions for lenses.
Common names (referred to as descriptions) are easier to remember than arbitrary model numbers. People are also often more interested in the specifications, which govern how the product will be used. Suppose a company presented Elijah and Elisha lenses. Are you going to buy them according to their names? Wouldn't you be interested in the specs? Someone looking for a 35mm lens can safely skip the 85mm lens reviews.
I heard that lenses used to have names, but it got confusing.
Marketing names are confusing. For example, what are the differences between Pancolar, Planar, Sonnar, Biotar, Biometar, Minitar, Lomogon, Xenon, Xenar, Hexanon, Hexar, Rokkor, Celtic, …? What if I tell you that these names, more or less, see 50mm lenses for different camera systems? If you have a single camera system, just knowing you want 50 / 1.8 is enough to get the right one.
Wow, two of those lenses are 32mm … That's the craziness of trusting these kinds of names. You remember the name, but you get the wrong lens anyway.
You still need to know the mounting or opening to distinguish them.
It is not too much to expect people to know which mount they need for their camera. Most people at least know what camera they are using. Most sellers can use that information to determine mounting.
Can anyone explain to me what is the difference between lenses and other consumer electronic products?
Marketing names say nothing to people about how the product will be used. For products such as cars, televisions, and cameras, usage is determined by product type. But the use of lenses is governed by certain specifications. If you need a specific FOV, you need to find lenses with particular focal lengths. If you want to shoot at 1: 1 ratios, you need a macro lens. Elegant names do not convey that information.