interplanetary – Will Nakamoto consensus work if a nontrivial portion of miners/nodes are on the moon?

The Nakomoto consensus should work regardless of where the miners are located, as long as they are using the same network. The internet on earth, as it currently stands, is fully connected. So miners in China, Germany, and the United States are all contributing to the network where information is travelling across the internet.

It could be conceivable that different planets (or the moon) would have their own internet at some point, disconnected from that of earth’s, but that seems less likely than being connected via satellite transmission. As long as the networks of the moon and Mars are connected to the internet on earth, everything should still work normally.

Edit: Thanks to @PeterWuille in the comments for correcting this information. Here’s what was said:

“Nakamoto consensus requires that the block propagation time between miners is negligible compared to the inter-block time. If it isn’t, miners which are latency-wise “close” to each other will find more blocks that proportional to their hashrate share (simply because further out miners have a delay before being able to start working on a block), resulting in a (geographical) centralization pressure. When the latency exceeds the inter-block time (like it would be between Earth and Mars) the networks will split and fail to converge even.”

dnd 5e – How would a level 20 Moon druid defeat a Forcecage?

See yourself out

A (mostly) sure-fire way to get out of a forcecage on your own, is to shapechange into a beholder. You now have a pointable antimagic field spouting from your main eye, however since it’s a cone shape and only suppresses the forecage in its area, you’ll have a hard time squeezing out. What you’ll actually want to do is starting shooting at with your newfangled eye rays, until you get a disintegration ray on it.

If the target is a Large or smaller nonmagical object or creation of magical force, it is disintegrated without a saving throw.

Assuming the forcecage is fitted for your normal, medium sized druid body, you may find yourself squeezing in the confinement, but that shouldn’t really affect you too negatively (outside the discomfort of having pressure on your many eyeballs). None of the medium sized beholderkin have a disintegration ray, generally to the relief of the adventurers who face them.

As this is a ninth level spell you’ll only have one per day, but you are now a beholder and can turn your antimagic cone on the caster, preventing them from casting forcecage on yourself or anyone else. If you know you’ll face multiple forcecage casters throughout a day, you’ll either have to rely on your friends, or invest in ways to cast multiple 9th level spells per day, most notably either of the Epic Boons which let you do that.


†: Our options for shapechange forms here are fairly limited; the common beholder is the highest CR beholderkin that is not undead, and employed as what you’re most likely to have seen. Since shapechange doesn’t give you the Spellcasting trait you’ll need one that has a relevant “disintegrate” attack, or either of the spells as Innate spellcasting or similar. For Innate spellcasting, there are none with disintegrate, but aeorian nullifiers have antimagic field 1/Day. The woe strider from Theros also has conic antimagic field, but is CR7 (and cones don’t really work, see answer). The astral dreadnought also has a cone, but is CR21 so can’t be shapechanged to (and you may have an issue of size). If there are any relevant monster forms I’ve missed, I’d love to hear about them.

dnd 5e – How would a lv 20 Moon druid defeat a Forcecage?

How would a lv 20 Moon druid get out of a Forcecage?

Some options I’ve considered are:

Repeated teleportation attempts

There don’t appear to be any teleportation spells that would work from inside a Forcecage on the Druid spell list. The one that comes closest is Plane Shift, which can’t send me to the plane I’m on so that’s not good enough. Plus it’s 7th level, so only somewhat “repeatable”. Things like Tree Stride or Transport via Plants obviously won’t work.

I’ve found only one magic item that might help, the Helm of Teleportation. Which has 3 charges. That should be good enough to get out of the first Cage, but maybe not out of the second one. Besides, does it count as metal armor?

Perhaps there’s a Feat that can give me access to Misty Step? Would only be useful if I can cast it using spell slots.

Antimagic field or Disintegrate

Again, not on the Druid spell list. Any chance of getting access to this 8th level spell?

astrophotography – What is this noise around Jupiter’s moon?

full image

zoomed in image on the moon

I do some amateur astrophotography and love the photos nasa produces and while looking at this one of Jupiter I noticed that, around its moon, the is a rectangle with a slightly blue tint and a bit more noise than the rest of the image.

So my question is:

What is the cause of this?

Would they be upping the brightness a bit just on the moon to make it pop more?

Would the brightness of the moon just cause this to happen around it? I don’t think this is the case considering it’s rectangular but I’m not sure.

This isn’t about nasa deniers by the way, I’m just genuinely curious and can’t find much on what exactly nasa does to their photos much less this specific one.

Thanks for the help guys,
clear skys. enter image description here

astrophotography – How do I eliminate the shake I’m getting using a supertelephoto lens and tripod to shoot the moon?

I agree with @xenoid in that a system that uses Arca-Swiss style dovetail rails (they don’t need to be Arca-Swiss brand name) gives you an advantage because these rails come in various lengths and this lets you move rail forward/aft in the saddle to balance the camera’s center of mass over the tripod to reduce flexure and vibration.

A Benro GH2 is a gimbal head with a 50 lb load capacity… around $350 USD.

But it need not be a gimbal head to work well. Check the load rating for the head you are considering. A Benro B3 or above (e.g. B4, B5) would also be fairly beefy and in the $200-250 USD price range.

Regarding exposure…

Lunar exposures are fairly easy. The base rule is the “Looney 11” rule … at f/11, a good starting point for the shutter speed is the inverse of the ISO. So at ISO 100, that’s 1/100th. At ISO 200 it’s 1/200th. You need not use f/11 … but that’s the f-stop where the shutter speed is the simple inverse of the ISO. Trade f-stops for shutter speed if you prefer to use a different f-stop.

A caveat is to beware atmospheric extinction. This is the notion that while the moon is in sunlight, you are shooting through a lot of atmosphere and it absorbs (extinguishes) some of the light. That’s why it’s Looney 11 instead of Sunny 16 rules. If the moon is very low in the sky (rising or setting) then you’ll have more atmosphere to shoot through, which means more extinction … so you’d need a longer exposure. Also an atmosphere that has more dust, smog, or other particulates will absorb more light and need a longer exposure to compensate.

Here’s a sample image:

Moon exposed using Looney 11 rule

The above was shot at f/11, ISO 100, 1/100th sec.

I used a TeleVue NP101is (4″ apochromatic refractor with an f/5.4 focal ratio and 540mm focal length) combined with a TeleVue 2x PowerMate (an image-space telecentric teleconverter). This gave me an effective focal length of 1080mm at f/10.8 (f/11). The camera was a Canon 60Da (APS-C).

telephoto – Good tripod head for Moon photography set up

I have a Sony 200-600 (~5lb/2.1kg) that I’m looking to use for moon photography with a Vanguard Alta Pro 2+. However my I think my tripod head (Manfrotto X-PRO 3-Way) is introducing a lot of shaking (at 600mm). What’s a more suitable for setup for a heavy telephoto lens, where I’ll need it to be steady at long focal lengths (for zooming in on the moon)?

I’m looking for something in the $500 range (from here), as opposed to a something like a Arca-Swiss C1 Cube Geared Head in the $1500+ range.

Thanks

dnd 5e – Does unlimited Wild Shape make Circle of the Moon archdruids virtually unkillable?

No.

A druid can only wildshape on his turn. So, while he can apply unlimited hitpoints to his form by wildshaping every turn, he cannot prevent you from dealing damage when it isn’t his turn. If the druid is knocked out of his form (reduced to 0 hp), the first thing that happens is the excess damage carries over. But now he’s essentially vulnerable until his turn. That’s where the real damage comes in. You can think of wildshape as a regenerative shield of hit points.

Party Versus NPC Archdruids

There are a multitude of ways to “beat” the druid, just like any other encounter. Use your wits, bargain, stealth, combat, etc etc. Those tools are ALWAYS available. Your DM should be ready for you to avoid combat if you wish.

Party Versus PC Archdruids

If you’re talking about PC vs PC combat, there are also a plethora of spells that can assist in killing the druid. For instance, if the druid has less than 100 HP in wildshape OR not, a Warlock can cast Power Word: Kill, and the druid simply dies. No save, just dead. That’s just one spell. There are tons of others. A Druid can’t wildshape if they’re incapacitated. They, again, also can’t wildshape unless it is their turn, so plan your heavy attacks accordingly. When a druid is knocked out of form, they are vulnerable, so maximize your damage in that time or make that vulnerability last longer with controlling spells. Any damage that exceeds a druid’s wildshape form is applied to the druids regular form. Druids are very good at having health, so find a way to attack them in ways where health isnt the primary objective. Use conditions, spell effects, and any means to hinder the druid and he/she shouldn’t be that tough of a fight.

Specialization

DnD 5e rewards specialization. An Archdruid specializes in wildshape to effectively gain temporary hitpoints among other combat abilities. It’s the whole point of a wildshaping druid. Being a brown bear is cool, but when you can wildshape into one and get its free hitpoints, it becomes a big deal. That’s largely what wildshaping druids are meant to do, so it only makes sense that it gets ridiculously good at it at level 20. All classes have a 20th level ability they get that helps them be even more specialized. It’s a reward for forgoing multiclassing. Therefore, it should feel hard to deal damage to an Archdruid. But it’s not impossible.

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exposure – How to shoot a shot with the moon and city skyline?

Personally, since the shot is probably going to be long exposure and doesn’t move. I’d do two exposures and blend them together in post. It’ll be the easiest and cheapest approach.

HDR could work, but getting the spread correct would be difficult and is overkill for your needs.

Graduated ND filters are great in situations where the bright part is going to cause bleed in to the darker portion of the image or you need to take a quick shot because there is motion you need to stop, but they are a reasonably expensive specialty item.

If you simply setup a tripod, take one photo of the moon and one photo of the skyline properly exposed, then you can overlap them in Photoshop and simply mask one on to the other. The night sky should allow for a pretty smooth gradient to be applied to blend the background or you can do it directly along the skyline if you prefer. You could also try an additive blend after removing the overexposed moon from the skyline shot.

nikon – RAW Photo of the Moon – How to take pictures of objects in front of a (bright) moon?

I have an object in front of the moon and I wanted to take a RAW (NRW) photo including the moon and the object in front, thinking that I can fix the illumination/overexposure later in Lightroom.

But I can’t get the moon out properly. It seems to be overexposed. Or the foreground is really dark. What would be the best way to take this picture in a balanced way? Is it only possible by combining the pictures in Photoshop?

Moon by itself (without color correction):

Moon by itself (without color correction)

NRW file with the overexposed moon: NRW file with overexposed moon

Attempt to show them both in one shot, but the foreground is still underexposed (this was from one single NRW):

Attempt for best of both worlds

I am using a Nikon P950.