simulation – How to implement a rule-based decision maker for an agent-based model?

I have a hard time understanding how to combine a rule-based decision making approach for an agent in an agent-based model I try to develop.

The interface of the agent is a very simple one.

public interface IAgent
   public string ID { get; }

   public Action Percept(IPercept percept);

For the sake of the example, let’s assume that the agents represent Vehicles which traverse roads inside a large warehouse, in order to load and unload their cargo. Their route (sequence of roads, from the start point until the agent’s destination) is assigned by another agent, the Supervisor. The goal of a vehicle agent is to traverse its assigned route, unload the cargo, load a new one, receive another assigned route by the Supervisor and repeat the process.

The vehicles must also be aware of potential collisions, for example at intersection points, and give priority based on some rules (for example, the one carrying the heaviest cargo has priority).

As far as I can understand, this is the internal structure of the agents I want to build:

enter image description here

So the Vehicle Agent can be something like:

public class Vehicle : IAgent
  public VehicleStateUpdater { get; set; }

  public RuleSet RuleSet { get; set; }

  public VehicleState State { get; set; }

  public Action Percept(IPercept percept)
    VehicleStateUpdater.UpdateState(VehicleState, percept);
    Rule validRule = RuleSet.Match(VehicleState);
    VehicleStateUpdater.UpdateState(VehicleState, validRule);
    Action nextAction = validRule.GetAction();
    return nextAction;

For the Vehicle agent’s internal state I was considering something like:

public class VehicleState
  public Route Route { get; set; }

  public Cargo Cargo { get; set; }

  public Location CurrentLocation { get; set; }

For this example, 3 rules must be implemented for the Vehicle Agent.

  1. If another vehicle is near the agent (e.g. less than 50 meters), then the one with the heaviest cargo has priority, and the other agents must hold their position.
  2. When an agent reaches their destination, they unload the cargo, load a new one and wait for the Supervisor to assign a new route.
  3. At any given moment, the Supervisor, for whatever reason, might send a command, which the recipient vehicle must obey (Hold Position or Continue).

The VehicleStateUpdater must take into consideration the current state of the agent, the type of received percept and change the state accordingly. So, in order for the state to reflect that e.g. a command was received by the Supervisor, one can modify it as follows:

public class VehicleState
  public Route Route { get; set; }

  public Cargo Cargo { get; set; }

  public Location CurrentLocation { get; set; }

  // Additional Property
  public RadioCommand ActiveCommand { get; set; }

Where RadioCommand can be an enumeration with values None, Hold, Continue.

But now I must also register in the agent’s state if another vehicle is approaching. So I must add another property to the VehicleState.

public class VehicleState
  public Route Route { get; set; }

  public Cargo Cargo { get; set; }

  public Location CurrentLocation { get; set; }

  public RadioCommand ActiveCommand { get; set; }

  // Additional properties
  public bool IsAnotherVehicleApproaching { get; set; }

  public Location ApproachingVehicleLocation { get; set; }

This is where I have a huge trouble understanding how to proceed and I get a feeling that I do not really follow the correct approach. First, I am not sure how to make the VehicleState class more modular and extensible. Second, I am not sure how to implement the rule-based part that defines the decision making process. Should I create mutually exclusive rules (which means every possible state must correspond to no more than one rule)? Is there a design approach that will allow me to add additional rules without having to go back-and-forth the VehicleState class and add/modify properties in order to make sure that every possible type of Percept can be handled by the agent’s internal state?

I have seen the examples demonstrated in the Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach coursebook and other sources but the available examples are too simple for me to “grasp” the concept in question when a more complex model must be designed.

An example of a rule I tried to incorporate:

public class HoldPositionCommandRule : IAgentRule<VehicleState>
    public int Priority { get; } = 0;

    public bool ConcludesTurn { get; } = false;

    public void Fire(IAgent agent, VehicleState state, IActionScheduler actionScheduler)
        state.Navigator.IsMoving = false;
        //Use action scheduler to schedule subsequent actions...

    public bool IsValid(VehicleState state)
        bool isValid = state.RadioCommandHandler.HasBeenOrderedToHoldPosition;
        return isValid;

A sample of the agent decision maker that I also tried to implement.

public void Execute(IAgentMessage message,
                    IActionScheduler actionScheduler)
    _agentStateUpdater.Update(_state, message);
    Option<IAgentRule<TState>> validRule = _ruleMatcher.Match(_state);
    validRule.MatchSome(rule => rule.Fire(this, _state, actionScheduler));

I would be grateful if someone can point me in the right direction concerning the implementation of the rule-based part.

I am writing in C# but as far as I can tell it is not really relevant to the broader issue I am trying to solve.

game maker – How do I create a powerup that affects speed for a limited amount of time?

A simple implementation can be done on the playership object. You need to track the power-up additional speed (powerup_speed) and the overall bonus duration time (powerup_countdown). On playership:

Create Event:

powerup_speed = 0;
powerup_countdown = 0;

The power-up effects occur only when the timer is a positive value. This is a countdown timer: As long as it is greater than 0, we set the bonus speed to an arbitrary value and reduce the timer by 1. Otherwise, the bonus is inactive and we reset the bonus speed:

Step Event:

if (powerup_countdown > 0)
    powerup_speed = 10;  // Change as needed
    powerup_countdown = powerup_countdown - 1;
    powerup_speed = 0;  // Reset bonus speed

Please note, the timer is defined as game steps, not seconds: n seconds = n * room_speed steps.

Then, you change the code snippet controlling the y position as follows:

y += sign(mouse_y - y) * (global.Speedy + powerup_speed);

This way, your power-up logic should be up and working. Applying the power-up to the playership object is just a value assignment when the collision occurs:

Collision Event:

playership.powerup_countdown = 30 * room_speed;  // Power-up lasts for 30 secs

game maker – How do I create a powerup that effects speed for a limited amount of time in gamemaker studio 2

I am looking to create a powerup that when your “playership” object collides with it will effect the “playership”s speed for maybe a few seconds say 30-60 seconds. I cannot seem to figure this out on my own nor do I know what to look up so I am asking on here for some help.

I have this for my playership “y += sign(mouse_y – y)*global.Speedy;”

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game maker – and instance_place(64, 64) cuando escribo esto en gamemaker studio 2 me sale error de sintaxis

game maker – and instance_place(64, 64) cuando escribo esto en gamemaker studio 2 me sale error de sintaxis – Game Development Stack Exchange

password cracking – I am looking for a custom brute force dictionary maker

I am looking for a custom brute force password dictionary generator.

I have tried a few (one of which being Crunch), however, I am looking for one that will create reasonable passwords based on words, not letters.

I have attempted to use the feature included in Crunch that is designed for this type of exercise however it seems to use every word in all of the outcomes
Input = dog, cat, 123 | output = dogcat123, catdog123, 123dogcat

However, I am looking for a program that would allow me to make a custom wordlist without including every word in all of the outcomes.

e.g Input = dog, cat, 123 | output = dogcat, 123dog, catdog, cat123

Game Maker Studio 2 – Is there a way to play videos in Gamemaker Studio 2?

I made a little cutscene in adobe animate. I was wondering what would be the best way to have it triggered in game-maker studio 2. The Video is .mp4 but I could convert it as I have the .fla file saved as well. I wanna figure the best way to play a cutscene in game-maker studio 2 but I am having trouble figuring this out any help on this is greatly appreciated.

Find love easily | Money Maker Discussion

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Building a Hosting Website | Money Maker Discussion

Though Reseller Hosting is not enough for your Hosting Business, but even then you can earn some bucks if you are a Reseller of good hosting site. Because, right now clients need prompt solution of their problems. And, also you need a billing software, I would suggest you to go for WHMCS, because it is the user friendly and easy to understand ;]

[Fixed] SSL_ERROR_NO_CYPHER_OVERLAP | Money Maker Discussion

JavaScript is disabled. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding.

You may encounter a variety of issues related to the browser on the web. So, if you are utilizing the Mozilla Firefox web browser, among those prospective problems is the SSL_ERROR_NO_CYPHER_OVERLAP. If you don’t know what is causing it, it can be frustrating and worrying.

You can take some straightforward actions to fix and also resolve this problem. However, getting a much better understanding of the factors behind this error will assist you in fixing it quickly.

In this blog, I will discuss the SSL_ERROR_NO_CYPHER_OVERLAP and what are its common reasons. I will explain how to fix it utilizing possible techniques.


Unlike other internet browser errors, the SSL_ERROR_NO_CYPHER_OVERLAP mistake happens, particularly with Firefox. However, Google Chrome also has a somewhat various yet similar version of it, with a different message “ERR_SSL_VERSION_OR_CIPHER_MISMATCH.”

Full Article Source:


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