Finance – Life annuity lottery and interest rate.

I'm having trouble asking this question.

Mary Jones won a state lottery of $ 4,000,000

She will receive a check for $ 200,000 now and a similar check for each year for 19 years. To provide these 20 payments, the State Lottery Commission purchased an annuity with an interest rate of 10% compounded annually. How much did the annuity cost the Commission?

The answer key is to use this formula: A = R (1 + r)[1 – (1+r)-n ]/ r
However, I wonder, where did R (1 + r) come from?

Thank you.

[ Politics ] Open question: How can people with food stamps buy smartphones, tattoos, multiple children and lottery tickets?

[ Politics ] Open question: How can people with food stamps buy smartphones, tattoos, multiple children and lottery tickets? .

Proof of work – lottery approach

I'm sure I'm missing something here. But I'm not sure what …

Work test: after everything that is said and done, when a hash is found (approximately 10 minutes), it is said that it is like someone who is winning in the lottery. Any person who wins the lottery must be able to show that a cost was incurred. So there are two things:

  1. Include a cost to find the hash.
  2. The winner is considered "random" because finding the hash is an iterative divination process.

The result is a huge energy burn and the result "mimics" a random winner.

QUESTION: Can the bitcoin network randomly select a subset of the existing nodes, for each block, which then compete to solve the hash? For example, if there are 100,000 nodes, the network randomly selects 10% or 10,000 nodes that can compete to find the hash. Or take it to a smaller number like 1% or 1,000 nodes, etc.

The burning question is: Why can not we imitate the proof of the work process and save a ton of energy on the road?

Why not make all the nodes that wish to enter each block lottery pay a small fee? All of them currently incur electricity costs, so, from a financial point of view, does it matter if they pay a small lottery fee or a small fee to the electric company?

EXAMPLE: For the next block, here is the process:

  1. All 100,000 nodes pay (arbitrary number for now to knit) 1000
    satoshis
  2. The random bitcoin network (maybe this is a difficult part)
    select a subset percentage. Say 10% or 10,000 nodes. These are the nodes that compete for the next block entry.

BENEFITS:

  1. There is still a cost incurred by each participant without the use of energy.
  2. The use of energy is now a fraction of the total participation of the network for the iterative search of hash.
  3. It can allow greater node participation by less powerful computers. A laptop will still be at a disadvantage, but now it is competing against another 9,999 computers instead of the hash power of the entire network.

To understand this is the fact that the end result of the current process is a "random" winner that can prove that a cost has been incurred.

Can the lottery quota approach achieve the same goal without sacrificing security?

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