java – Disadvantages of OOP, “in the Kingdom of Nouns”

One of the problems with OOP is not what OOP is, but how it is taught.

Alan Kay, who coined the term “Object-Oriented Programming” has made it very clear on multiple occasions that Messaging is the most important thing in OOP. He has even said that he regrets called it Object-Oriented and should have called it Message-oriented instead.

So, even from the very first days of OOP, the focus has been on the Interaction, not on the Thing.

However, the very first technique for object-oriented analysis being taught is “underline all the subjects, verbs, and objects in the use case; the subjects become classes, the verbs methods, and the objects fields.”

Note how this methodology does not even focus on objects, it focuses on classes.

But even if we assume that this methodology is a good methodology, you can still end up with widely differing designs, depending on how you formulate the use case.

One of my favorite examples is banking. The BankAccount is one the most-widely used introductory examples in OOP. And “everybody knows” what a BankAccount is, right?

class BankAccount {
    private Money balance;

    void deposit(Money amount) {
        balance += amount;
    }

    bool withdraw(Money amount) {
        if (balance < amount) { return false; }
        balance -= amount;
        return true;
    }
}

Easy-peasy. Now, add the transfer method. Oh, wait, what object does it belong to? Does A transfer to B or does B transfer from A? And what about concurrency?

class BankAccount {
    Money balance;

    void deposit(Money amount) {
        balance += amount;
    }

    bool withdraw(Money amount) {
        if (balance < amount) { return false; }
        balance -= amount;
        return true;
    }

    bool transfer(Money amount, BankAccount target) {
        if (balance < amount) { return false; }
        withdraw(amount);
        target.deposit(amount);
        return true;
    }
}

“Everybody knows” that “balance” is data and “transfer” is an action. Right? RIGHT?

Well, turns out that’s not how it works. In fact, it has never worked that way, all the way back to when bank transfers were first invented.

What happens when you make a transfer is that the clerk writes a transaction slip, and at the end of the business day, all the transaction slips for the account are tallied up, and this yields the new balance. Then, the transaction slips are sent to the receiving bank, where the same thing happens.

So, in the “real world” (which every OOP tutorial teaches us we are supposed to model), the transaction is actually data and the balance is actually an operation!

record Transaction(BankAccount source, BankAccount target, Money amount)

class BankAccount {
    Money balance() {
        // find all transaction slips which have `this` as either source or target
        // add all the amounts which have `this` as target
        // subtract all the amounts which have `this` as source
        return result;
    }

    void deposit(Money amount) {
        TransactionLog.append(new Transaction(CASH, this, amount));
    }

    void withdraw(Money amount) {
        TransactionLog.append(new Transaction(this, CASH, amount));
    }
}

Note that all of our concurrency problems go away: BankAccount is immutable, Transaction is immutable, we only need an “almost-immutable” append-only TransactionLog. We also get a full audit-trail for free, and can recover from partial data loss.

That is not actually surprising if you consider that this is how banking has been done since the times when moving transaction slips via horse courier between branches and banks was risky and may have taken days. This has exactly the same problems and properties as a distributed electronic banking system.

So, as you can see, we can flip the roles of nouns and verbs for the exact same problem just by approaching the problem differently.

Also, note how the complexity of the problem and the context requires having multiple independent concurrent actors, namely at least the two branches of the bank. That is what OOP is supposed to be: multiple independent actors collaborating by exchanging messages while keeping their own workings hidden from the rest of the world.

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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 5h30 PM
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FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 9h40 PM
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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 12h10 PM
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FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 9h40 PM
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FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 10h15 PM
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Rating: 5



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FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 11h10 PM
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Rating: 5



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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 11h15 PM


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LIVE ~ 51.79.69.153:1337 | 0.27 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 158.69.243.148:9999 | 0.272 | Lake Forest | CA | 92630 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 163.172.7.233:9090 | 0.262 | Southend | M5 | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 185.62.189.27:57673 | 0.29 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Europe | Checked at vn5socks.net
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LIVE ~ 220.248.188.75:17211 | 0.472 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | China | Checked at vn5socks.net
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LIVE ~ 209.97.182.201:9060 | 0.262 | Alameda | CA | 94501 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 41.78.24.126:9999 | 0.478 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Kenya | Checked at vn5socks.net
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FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 11h15 PM
LIVE ~ 159.89.237.201:40001 | 0.246 | Vancouver | BC | v7y1j7 | Canada | Checked at vn5socks.net
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LIVE ~ 167.71.172.18:9060 | 0.259 | New York | NY | 10020 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 51.79.69.153:1337 | 0.27 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 158.69.243.148:9999 | 0.272 | Lake Forest | CA |

Rating: 5



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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 9h40 PM


LIVE ~ 220.248.188.75:17211 | 0.476 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | China | Checked at vn5socks.net
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LIVE ~ 173.254.222.162:1090 | 0.198 | Los Angeles | CA | 90014 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 41.78.24.126:9999 | 0.486 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Kenya | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 79.124.62.26:443 | 0.211 | Svoge | 58 | Unknown | Bulgaria | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 108.61.75.207:9000 | 0.225 | Piscataway | NJ | 08854 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 209.97.182.201:9060 | 0.264 | Alameda | CA | 94501 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 167.71.172.18:9060 | 0.251 | New York | NY | 10020 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 159.89.237.201:40001 | 0.239 | Vancouver | BC | v7y1j7 | Canada | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 51.79.69.153:1337 | 0.254 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 51.83.200.213:3306 | 0.253 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 185.14.31.113:443 | 0.282 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Europe | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 18.177.13.247:443 | 0.141 | Cambridge | MA | 02139 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 163.172.7.233:9090 | 0.256 | Southend | M5 | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 158.69.243.148:9999 | 0.263 | Lake Forest | CA | 92630 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net


FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
.
[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 9h40 PM
LIVE ~ 220.248.188.75:17211 | 0.476 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | China | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 47.49.12.165:51861 | 0.244 | Ottawa | ON | k1y4h7 | Canada | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 173.254.222.162:1090 | 0.198 | Los Angeles | CA | 90014 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 41.78.24.126:9999 | 0.486 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Kenya | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 79.124.62.26:443 | 0.211 | Svoge | 58 | Unknown | Bulgaria |

Rating: 5



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[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 10h10 PM


LIVE ~ 188.120.245.247:55432 | 0.294 | Moscow | 48 | Unknown | Russian Federation | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 159.89.237.201:40001 | 0.255 | Vancouver | BC | v7y1j7 | Canada | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 167.71.172.18:9060 | 0.25 | New York | NY | 10020 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 185.14.31.113:443 | 0.284 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Europe | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 51.79.69.153:1337 | 0.252 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 51.83.200.213:3306 | 0.281 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 158.69.243.148:9999 | 0.269 | Lake Forest | CA | 92630 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 163.172.7.233:9090 | 0.241 | Southend | M5 | Unknown | United Kingdom | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 18.177.13.247:443 | 0.119 | Cambridge | MA | 02139 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 82.165.137.115:7061 | 0.325 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Germany | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 220.248.188.75:17211 | 0.485 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | China | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 47.49.12.165:51861 | 0.257 | Ottawa | ON | k1y4h7 | Canada | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 185.62.189.27:57673 | 0.358 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Europe | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 94.130.72.201:11750 | 0.339 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Ukraine | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 88.255.217.103:1082 | 0.329 | Vakiflar | 59 | Unknown | Turkey | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 95.216.181.107:9090 | 0.297 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Ukraine | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 173.254.222.162:1090 | 0.293 | Los Angeles | CA | 90014 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 157.245.231.94:9090 | 0.233 | Eugene | OR | 97402 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net


FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
.
[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 10h10 PM
LIVE ~ 188.120.245.247:55432 | 0.294 | Moscow | 48 | Unknown | Russian Federation | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 159.89.237.201:40001 | 0.255 | Vancouver | BC | v7y1j7 | Canada | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 167.71.172.18:9060 | 0.25 | New York | NY | 10020 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 185.14.31.113:443 | 0.284 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Europe | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 51.79.69.153:1337 | 0.252 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown |

Rating: 5



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