command line: create a new terminal window but do not change the focus

I am running a terminal (call it the main terminal), I start a script to run some background updates on my system, when I do this I open some other windows (terminals) to run tail -F some-file.log Have some images of what is happening. Meanwhile, I want to continue doing my thing in the main terminal.

The problem is that every time my background task generates a new terminal (gnome-terminal) the focus changes to that and interrupts my writing.

Is there any gnome-terminal option (or other method) to open a terminal but not change the focus to it?

Reduction of focus on a particular face in an image

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Focus: Is it better to use a wide aperture when I am focusing on infinity and depth of field is not a concern?

If I receive the correct question, is it about whether in the infinite approach I should use wider openings like f / 1.4 or narrower openings like f / 11 to get the sharpest results? The answer is, it depends … First let's see what depth of field is really in the infinite focus.

Depth of field depends on three things:

  1. Focusing distance,
  2. focal length,
  3. opening (the number f) and
  4. sensor or film frame size.

The focus distance is the distance between your camera (specifically the sensor or the film) and the subject you are focusing on. That is usually expressed in feet or meters. The focal length is the distance between the sensor / film and the point of convergence of the light on the lens. It is usually expressed in millimeters (50mm main lens, 28-135mm zoom lens …) and determines the field of view. The number f is the ratio of the focal length to the apparent diameter of the aperture diaphragm as seen through the front element of the lens. You usually see this expressed as the inverse of that with "f /" in front. A 50 mm lens with an apparent iris diameter of 10 mm would have an f number of 5 (50 mm / 10 mm), usually denoted as f / 5. The same 50 mm lens with its iris open at 25 mm as go from the front would have a number f 2, denoted as f / 2.

Depth of field decreases with wider openings. For a given focal length and focal length, you get a lower depth of field in f / 2 than in f / 8. The depth of field decreases with a greater focal length. For a given focal length and number f, a focal length of 50 mm would give a greater depth of field than a focal length of 100 mm. The depth of field increases with the focal length. For a given f-number and focal length, focusing on a subject 20 meters away gives you a greater depth of field than a subject 10 meters away. Details on why this can be found on this site and in many other resources. All this is due to how the lenses and projections work, combined with physical limitations of materials such as sensors and films.

The sharpest focus will be anything in the field of view at the focus distance. Then, if you focus your lens at 3 meters away, things at 3 meters will be sharper regardless of focal length or aperture. In front of that imaginary spatial plane (between the camera and the focus distance) there is an acceptably sharp focus area, and also behind (between the focus distance and the infinity). The sum of these two distances is the depth of field. It is important to know that the "sharp" area between the camera and the subject is less deep than the one behind the subject. Let's see some examples. I will use an online DOF simulator. In case that link is disconnected, you can easily find many more or download an application for desktop computers or mobile devices.

Imagine we are shooting with a 50mm lens. The subject is 3 meters away and we focus correctly. The opening is set in f / 3.2. The camera has a full-frame sensor (or 35mm film). The total depth of the field is 66.5 cm. 29.6 cm of that range are in front of the subject, 36.9 cm behind the subject.

Move the subject to 5 meters and focus correctly, and you will get a depth of field of 190 cm, 77.6 cm in front and 113 cm behind.

Keep focusing further and the depth of field will increase. The depth of field behind the subject will also increase at a faster rate than in the front. With a 50 mm lens and f / 3.2 focused at 20 meters, the depth of field becomes 65.59 m with 8.51 m in front of the subject but 57.08 m behind the subject.

At some point, the part of the depth of field behind the subject becomes essentially infinite, even before focusing on infinity. This is known as the hyperfocal distance. For a focal length of 50 mm in f / 3.2, the hyperfocal distance is 26.94 m. This means that if you focus your lens at that distance or more, you have the guarantee that "acceptable sharpness" extends to infinity behind the subject. You still get a great depth of field in front of the subject too, but not all the way to the camera.

Hyperfocal distance is very useful for certain types of photography. For example, in landscapes, if you know the hyperfocal distance for the chosen focal length and aperture, then, if the subject you focus is at least at that distance, you know for sure that you are also getting everything behind (such as mountains, distance clouds, stars …) in focus.

When you focus on infinity, the depth of vision extends from hyperfocal distance to infinity. So that is a second useful aspect. Focusing on the infinite and knowing the hyperfocal distance tells you how close something can be to you before it starts to blur.

That brings us to your question. If you are filming things that are far enough away that you need to focus at infinity or at least very close to that setting, you should not worry about a wide aperture that makes you lose focus. Even with a 200mm lens at f / 1.8 (if there is such a thing) the hyperfocal distance on a full-frame sensor would be about 775 meters. Focus for infinity and everything beyond 775 meters will be clear. Concentrate to 775 meters and you will get a depth of field from 387.3 meters to infinity.

Assuming things are as far away as you think and manage to focus at least at the hyperfocal distance, you will not get images that lack sharpness due to a "very shallow" depth of field. So what could make you get images that are not as sharp as they should be?

First there is, of course, equipment. Quality lenses and a camera with a good sensor (or a high quality film if you become analog) will tend to get better results.

Assuming it is at acceptable levels, you should be able to keep the camera stable. Manual shots will rarely be sharp at longer shutter times, especially as the focal length becomes longer. With a 50mm lens and no other stabilization technology, any shot with a shutter speed slower than 1/50 of a second is a bet. If the camera is stable (on a solid tripod, not on something heavier than a breeze), you can increase the sharpness by using a remote control to shoot the shutter and using the lens lock function if the camera has it.

Narrower openings lead to longer shutter times because you get less light on the sensor / film. That is detrimental to manual shots. This could be the reason you found better results in f / 1.4 than in f / 8. But even if your camera is mounted on a tripod, longer shutter times can reduce the sharpness through motion blur. This could be due to the vibrations of the mirror and / or the shutter (more pronounced at specific speeds), a slight movement due to the wind or simply the movement of the landscape. When shooting stars or the moon are taken, it is easy to underestimate the speed at which the night sky changes. An exposure of even a few seconds would be enough for the stars to begin to scratch and remove the moon's details. Therefore, a narrow aperture may not leave a shutter time short enough to obtain a clear shot. When you do, you may have to raise both the ISO in a digital camera that introduces a lot of noise.

But always going for the widest opening is not necessarily the best option. Again, due to the physics behind the lens design, the sharpest area of ​​the projection will be in the center if the image with quality decreases towards the edges and corners. That's where distortion, chromatic aberration and blur begin to play a more important role. The lenses tend to have an optimal point in their aperture range, where this is minimized. Typical numbers are f / 5.6 and f / 8. There is a point of diminishing returns by reducing the opening. In values ​​such as f / 16 and higher, you may begin to lose sharpness again due to diffraction. You can usually find information on which apertures a lens works best, make a conjecture, or experiment to find out.

Then, in the end, you should consider things in this order if you want to shoot things at a long distance.

  1. Which is the topic? Are they only things in the distance or are there elements in the foreground that you want to be clear? Compose to find the right focal length.
  2. Take the closest thing that needs to be sharp and calculate the distance (or use assistance such as autofocus and a reading of the resulting focus distance). Find the widest aperture you can use to focus on that thing and still make the DOF extend to infinity behind it, or focus behind it and still have it in the DOF before the focal plane. If it is beyond the hyperfocal distance, it can focus to infinity.
  3. Now discover the appropriate shutter time at that aperture and for the given lighting conditions. If it is fast enough to reduce the aperture a little more and sacrifice some shutter speed, do so if a narrower aperture brings you closer to the ideal value for sharpness.

For a digital camera, you should also keep in mind that you want to keep the ISO as low as possible to reduce image noise.

infinite focus vs low aperture for the same result

If I shoot at f1.4, I can easily separate the subject from the background due to a shallow DOF.
In case I turn the infinity in f1.4, will I have everything focused, except for the objects that are in the real focus distance of my lens?

Is it better to use f1.4 for stars, city / mountain landscapes and other types of photography where objects of interest are very far from me and I want to have them clear?

My old approach was to shoot all these types of scenarios with f8 or so, to achieve a wider field department and have everything in focus, but the result was not always as clear as I wanted.

I hope I have written it in an understandable way.
Thank you very much for your answer

This week's focus on European economic data and Powell's economic outlook statement, the price of gold fell below significant support

The first phase of commercial friction between China and the United States is expected. The news has seen a sharp decrease in the risk aversion of gold, as investors regain confidence in the global economic growth rate, but it should be borne in mind that European economic data this week is likely to appear. The slowdown has changed once again the way of thinking of short-term investors.
Germany expects to publish data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the third quarter for the third quarter of this week, which may result in recession. According to a Reuters survey by economists, the third quarter GDP of the world's fourth largest economy has been reduced by 0.1%. %, has been a negative growth for two consecutive quarters, this phenomenon can be seen as a recession. In addition, the United Kingdom will announce its third quarter GDP today (11.) With global economic growth and concerns about Brexit, according to a Reuters survey by economists, the UK's third quarter GDP is expected to grow by 0.4% You can avoid the problem of economic recession. Finally, this week's focus on Federal Reserve Chairman (Fed), Powell, will go to the US House Budget Committee hearing on days 14 and 15. Powell's speech will be based on perspectives United States economic, and market investors should pay close attention.

Forex Spread Fixed Platform – Technical Analysis (Gold XAUUSD):
Today's gold (November 11) early in the morning at 1459.3 US dollars / ounce, from the technical analysis, the 1 hour level observation trend fell below the important support 1464 ~ 1467 US dollars / ounce, there will be a strongly revised rebound, so there is a possibility Break the market fund.
Currently, the pressure range above the short-term line is located at 1471 ~ 1472 US dollars / ounce, the descending direction, the initial support range is 1457 ~ 1458 US dollars / ounce, the operational mentality is in mostly short, investors who want to enter the market to make it shorter can be considered at 1461 US dollars per ounce. To buy a light warehouse in the range of $ 1,463 / oz, the stop loss can be considered to be set below $ 1,459 per ounce

Forex Spread Fixed Platform – Technical analysis (EUR / USD EURUSD):
The EUR / USD of today (November 11) Early in the morning about 1.10193, cut from the technical analysis, after the 1 hour level observation trend fell below the great cleavage, according to the empty provision of The Bollinger Band has been deep and stable. Therefore, there is the possibility of starting a short-term rebound.
At present, the pressure range above the short-term line is 1,10400 ~ 1,10460, the direction down, the initial support interval is 1,10050 ~ 1,10100, and the operating mentality is mainly short. Investors who wish to enter the market for a short time may consider buying in the area 1.10210 to 1.10250. The stop loss point can be considered to be set below 1.10160.

Forex Spread Fixed Platform – Technical Analysis (GBP / USD GBPUSD):
GBP / USD today (November 11) Early in the morning about 1,27892, since the technical analysis, the 1-hour line level observation trend is quite complete, and current support begins to recover, but pay more attention to the UK data in the afternoon. Fluctuations, so there is the possibility of going back and up again.
At present, the pressure range above the short term is located at 1,28250-228300, in the downward direction. The initial support range is 1,27700 ~ 1,27750. The operational mentality is mainly short. Investors who wish to enter the market for a short time may consider buying in the range of 1,27850 to 1,27900. The stop loss point can be considered to be set below 1,27720.

Forex Spread Fixed Platform – Technical Analysis (NZD / USD NZDUSD):
New Zealand dollar / US dollar today (November 11) Early in the neighborhood of 0.63259, cut from the technical analysis, the 1-hour line level observation trend is in line with last Friday's forecast (8) first fall and then it goes up, the current K stick continues to fall into the declining channel. Therefore, there is the possibility of bouncing to the red circle in the image and then falling again.
At present, the pressure range above the short-term line is 0.63650 ~ 0.63700, in the downward direction, the initial support interval is 0.63300 ~ 0.63350, and the operational mentality is mainly in the short term. Investors who want to enter the market in the short term may consider buying in the range 0.63530 to 0.63560. The stop loss position can be considered to be set above 0.63610.

Forex Spread Fixed Platform – Technical Analysis (Nasdaq Index Nas100):
The Nasdaq of today (November 11) early in the morning about 8250.7, from the technical analysis, the 1-hour line level observation trend is expected to reach the first stage of the Chinese-American trade news, making the actions of EE. UU. Go up again, the current high power, so there is the opportunity is short term to withdraw the correction.
At present, the pressure range above the short-term line is 8250 ~ 8260 points, the direction down, the initial support interval is 8190 ~ 8200 points, and the operating mindset is mainly short-term . Investors who want to enter the market in the short term may consider buying in the 8235-8250 area. In, it can be considered that the stop loss point is set above 8260.

Today's key data (data name / importance / previous / expected value):
1. September Japan commercial account (100 million yen) / three stars / 509/513
2. China M2 annual money supply rate in October / three stars / 8.4% / 8.4%
3. Initial value of the annual GDP rate for the third quarter of the United Kingdom / three stars / 1.3% / 1.1%
4. Commodity trading account seasonally adjusted in September (100 million pounds) / three stars / -98.06 / -100
5. Monthly rate of industrial production in the United Kingdom in September / three stars / -0.6% / -0.2%
6. UK manufacturing monthly production rate in September / three stars / -0.7% / -0.3%
7. United Kingdom monthly GDP rate in September for three months / three stars / 0.3% / 0.4%

For more information on the fixed spread forex platform, click here to view.

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pathfinder 1e – Do you still receive the focus penalty from the Cunning Caster feat when your focus is permanent?

Cunning pitcher

This feat allows you to hide spell casting, but it has penalties for every visual aspect of the spell you need to hide.

The general benefit is as follows:

When casting a spell, you can try a Bluff check (as opposed to observer Perception checks) to hide your actions from viewers.

Every thing you do that is part of the spell casting causes a penalty here. For example, if you use material components, you get a -4, but it is known that the Eschew Materials feat eliminates it.

On the subject of focus and divine approach, the exact wording is this:

If the spell requires a focus or a divine approach, you receive a –4 penalty on the Bluff check.

All penalties in Cunning Caster are linked to the process below. Normally, components, including material and spotlights, are expected to be manipulated as part of the spell cast.

To cast a spell, you must be able to speak (if the spell has a verbal component), make gestures (if it has a somatic component) and manipulate the material components or focus (if any). In addition, you must concentrate to cast a spell.

My question: Do you still receive the Cunning Caster approach penalty when your focus is permanent? IE: Part of the clothes, a sacred symbol tattoo, or something treated as a focus that does not stipulate having to touch it to use it as a focus.

Focus: Can we show that the object is not tilted from the photos?

This is an image of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Can we say of this image, or of a combination of images available online, to say with some degree of confidence (to prove?) That this minaret in a red circle is vertical, not inclined as stated?

(The larger original version is in commons.wikimedia)

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I asked a question in Islam SE:
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi inclined minaret? So far it seems that there is no written evidence of that statement.

(I'm not sure which tags to use, feel free to edit / suggest)
Maybe a related post: calculate the camera's tilt angle from a 2D image

Can the Canon EF-M camera use the focus with wire lenses?

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There are currently 2 types of Canon STM lenses: fast and quiet STM type of advance screw and slow and noisy STM type Gear.

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The STM Gear type lenses (40 mm 2.8 STM and 50 mm 1.8 STM) work well in manual focus with the EF-M, but the lead screw type lenses (10-18 mm STM and 18-135 mm STM) will not focus manually.

(I also tried the new Nano USM 18-135 mm and it doesn't focus manually either)

I was able to mount these EF-S lenses on the EF-M by removing the plastic insert that is designed to prevent mounting on a full-frame camera. I don't have access to the Full Frame STM or Nano USM lenses, but I hope they don't work with the EF-M camera either.

SO, The EF-M works well with the 40 mm 2.8 STM and 50 mm 1.8 STM lenses, but as with a DSLR, you must press the shutter halfway to start the measurement before the electronic STM approach works. It works with the lens set to AF or MF.

Once it starts working, the AF or MF will continue to function indefinitely, as long as the focus ring continues to rotate. This continues even after the camera measures as stopped. If you stop focusing, the STM will lose power after about 4 seconds of inactivity. When you press the shutter button halfway, it comes back to life.

Image stabilization is a different story, since it doesn't seem to work at all.

I also tried using my old EF 35-80 Power Zoom lens on the EF-M, and the motorized zoom function does work. But, because this lens has no manual focus ring, the lens, of course, is not really usable in the EF-M.

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Why doesn't a Sigma HSM lens automatically focus with my Nikon D5600? Is there a compatibility issue?

There are widespread reports that several Sigma lenses have FA problems with the Nikon D5600 and other recent Nikon camera bodies. It seems to have started with a D5500 firmware update that also disabled AF with that model and many Sigma lenses that worked well with the original D5500 firmware.

Sigma lists the lens to be compatible with the D5600. However, the entire list is preceded by a disclaimer that "It is not guaranteed for all functions and performance".

Sigma may or may not issue a firmware update for your particular lens to be compatible with the newer Nikon bodies. Historically it is a bit unpredictable. If they issue an update, they will generally do so without charge if the lens is still under warranty, they will charge a minimum fee that covers the return shipment if the lens is out of warranty and still has the sales receipt, or will charge a little higher fee If you no longer have a receipt or bought the second hand lens.

There are notes for other lenses in the box linked above that tell us which lenses currently have firmware updates available. There is no such note for the D5600 and that lens as of June 14, 2018. There is no update for that lens included in this list of updates currently available for Sigma lenses & # 39; Global Vision & # 39 ;. Nor could I find any reference to a press release about Sigma issuing a lens firmware update for that lens.

The Sigma lens series & # 39; Global Vision & # 39; (Art / Sport / Contemporary) are compatible with a USB base that connects to the lens holder and can be used by the end user to update the firmware and make other adjustments to the lens. . But the lens in question is not a lens of & # 39; Global Vision & # 39 ;. You will need a trip to a Sigma service center for future firmware updates.

Nikon: What do the focus points stored in a D7000 mean?

I have enabled the playback option to show focus points when viewing photos on my D7000. When shooting in AF-A with auto focus point, it often shows multiple active focus points for each image.

My question is, what does it really mean that a focus point is indicated as active? That the camera thought that point was focused? Or that he was trying to use that point to focus, but maybe he didn't?

The question was provoked by a sincere portrait of my son with an open shot of 35 / 1.8. The indicated focus points are mainly on his face, but one is in his ear and one is completely out of his face in the unfocused background. The sharpest real focus ended in his ear, with the front of his face significantly out of focus despite the fact that most of the "active" focus points were in that area.