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optics – How does the human eye compare to modern cameras and lenses?

Let me throw a question back at you: What is the bitrate and bit depth of a vinyl record?

Cameras are devices designed to, as faithfully as possible, reproduce the image that is projected onto their CCD. A human eye is an evolved device whose purpose is simply to enhance survival. It is quite complex and often behaves counter-intuitively. They have very few similarities:

  • An optical structure for focusing light
  • A receptive membrane to detect projected light

The photoreceptors of the retina

The eye itself is not remarkable. We have millions of photoreceptors, but they provide redundant (and ambiguous at the same time!) inputs to our brain. The rod photoreceptors are highly sensitive to light (especially on the blueish side of the spectrum), and can detect a single photon. In darkness, they operate quite well in a mode called scotopic vision. As it gets brighter, such as during twilight, the cone cells begin to wake up. Cone cells require around 100 photons at minimum to detect light. At this brightness, both rod cells and cone cells are active, in a mode called mesopic vision. Rod cells provide a small amount of color information at this time. As it gets brighter, rod cells saturate, and can no longer function as light detectors. This is called photopic vision, and only cone cells will function.

Biological materials are surprisingly reflective. If nothing was done, light that passes through our photoreceptors and hits the back of the eye would reflect at an angle, creating a distorted image. This is solved by the final layer of cells in the retina which absorb light using melanin. In animals that require great night vision, this layer is intentionally reflective, so photons which miss photoreceptors have a chance to hit them on their way back. This is why cats have reflective retinas!

Another difference between a camera and the eye is where the sensors are located. In a camera, they are located immediately in the path of light. In the eye, everything is backwards. The retinal circuitry is between the light and the photoreceptors, so photons must pass through a layer of all sorts of cells, and blood vessels, before finally hitting a rod or cone. This can distort light slightly. Luckily, our eyes automatically calibrate themselves, so we’re not stuck staring at a world with bright red blood vessels jetting back and forth!

The center of the eye is where all the high-resolution reception takes place, with the periphery progressively getting less and less sensitive to detail and more and more colorblind (though more sensitive to small amounts of light and movement). Our brain deals with this by rapidly moving our eyes around in a very sophisticated pattern to allow us to get the maximum detail from the world. A camera is actually similar, but rather than using a muscle, it samples each CCD receptor in turn in a rapid scan pattern. This scan is far, far faster than our saccadic movement, but it is also limited to only one pixel at a time. The human eye is slower (and the scanning is not progressive and exhaustive), but it can take in a lot more at once.

Preprocessing done in the retina

The retina itself actually does quite a lot of preprocessing. The physical layout of the cells is designed to process and extract the most relevant information.

While each pixel in a camera has a 1:1 mapping the digital pixel being stored (for a lossless image at least), the rods and cones in our retina behave differently. A single “pixel” is actually a ring of photoreceptors called a receptive field. To understand this, a basic understanding of the circuitry of the retina is required:

retinal circuitry

The main components are the photoreceptors, each of which connect to a single bipolar cell, which in turn connects to a ganglion cell that reaches through the optic nerve to the brain. A ganglion cell receives input from multiple bipolar cells, in a ring called a center-surround receptive field. The center of the ring and the surround of the ring behave as opposites. Light activating the center excites the ganglion cell, whereas light activating the surround inhibits it (an on-center, off-surround field). There are also ganglion cells for which this is reversed (off-center, on-surround).

receptive fields

This technique sharply improves edge detection and contrast, sacrificing acuity in the process. However overlap between receptive fields (a single photoreceptor can act as input to multiple ganglion cells) allows the brain to extrapolate what it is seeing. This means that information heading to the brain is already highly encoded, to the point where a brain-computer interface directly connecting to the optic nerve is unable to produce anything we can recognize. It is encoded this way because, as others have mentioned, our brain provides amazing post-processing capabilities. Since this isn’t directly related to the eye, I won’t elaborate on them much. The basics are that the brain detects individual lines (edges), then their lengths, then their direction of movement, each in subsequently deeper areas of the cortex, until it is all put together by the ventral stream and the dorsal stream, which serve to process high-resolution color and motion, respectively.

edge contrast

The fovea centralis is the center of the eye and, as others have pointed out, is where most of our acuity comes from. It contains only cone cells, and, unlike the rest of the retina, does have a 1:1 mapping to what we see. A single cone photoreceptor connects to a single bipolar cell which connects to a single ganglion cell.

The specs of the eye

The eye is not designed to be a camera, so there is no way to answer many of these questions in a way you may like.

What’s the effective resolution?

In a camera, there is rather uniform accuracy. The periphery is just as good as the center, so it makes sense to measure a camera by the absolute resolution. The eye on the other hand is not only not a rectangle, but different parts of the eye see with different accuracy. Instead of measuring resolution, eyes are most often measured in VA. A 20/20 VA is average. A 20/200 VA makes you legally blind. Another measurement is LogMAR, but it is less common.

Field of view?

When taking into account both eyes, we have a 210 degree horizontal field of view, and a 150 degree vertical field of view. 115 degrees in the horizontal plane are capable of binocular vision. However, only 6 degrees provides us with high-resolution vision.

Maximum (and minimum) aperture?

Typically, the pupil is 4 mm in diameter. Its maximum range is 2 mm (f/8.3) to 8 mm (f/2.1). Unlike a camera, we cannot manually control the aperture to adjust things like exposure. A small ganglion behind the eye, the ciliary ganglion, automatically adjusts the pupil based on ambient light.

ISO equivalence?

You can’t directly measure this, as we have two photoreceptor types, each with different sensitivity. At a minimum, we are able to detect a single photon (though that does not guarantee that a photon hitting our retina will hit a rod cell). Additionally, we do not gain anything by staring at something for 10 seconds, so extra exposure means little to us. As a result, ISO is not a good measurement for this purpose.

An in-the-ballpark estimate from astrophotographers seems to be 500-1000 ISO, with daylight ISO being as low as 1. But again, this is not a good measurement to apply to the eye.

Dynamic range?

The dynamic range of the eye itself is dynamic, as different factors come into play for scotopic, mesopic, and photopic vision. This seems to be explored well in How does the dynamic range of the human eye compare to that of digital cameras?.

Do we have anything that is equivalent to shutter speed?

The human eye is more like a video camera. It takes in everything at once, processes it, and sends it to the brain. The closest equivalent it has to shutter speed (or FPS) is the CFF, or Critical Fusion Frequency, also called the Flicker Fusion Rate. This is defined as the transition point where an intermittent light of increasing temporal frequency blends into a single, solid light. The CFF is higher in our periphery (which is why you can sometimes see the flicker of old florescent bulbs only if you look at them indirectly), and it is higher when it is bright. In bright light, our visual system has a CFF of around 60. In darkness, it can get as low as 10.

This isn’t the whole story though, because much of this is caused by visual persistence in the brain. The eye itself has a higher CFF (while I can’t find a source right now, I seem to remember it being on the order of magnitude of 100), but our brain blurs things together to decrease processing load and to give us more time to analyze a transient stimulus.

Trying to compare a camera and the eye

Eyes and cameras have completely different purposes, even if they seem to superficially do the same thing. Cameras are intentionally built around assumptions that make certain kinds of measurement easy, whereas no such plan came into play for the evolution of the eye.

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camera – Why does my eye lose white balance and feel exhausted when I use my viewfinder?

My D80 has a greenish tint effect (shutter count at approx 46000) in it’s viewfinder which goes away if i use it long enough constantly looking through the viewfinder.

The weird thing is my other eye starts to see things in green tint when i use it for viewfinder instead.

I don’t keep my both eyes during shooting (neither when it comes to shooting certain devices) for easier manual focus but this was a interesting effect.

The other thing i find weird is that my left eye feels exhausted if i keep both of my eyes open.

So, is this normal? What are these called.

pathfinder 1e – Where can I find lore about the Singing-Luminous Eye of the Speakers?

I was reading through Narriseminek’s wiki page when I saw this:

The name of Narriseminek’s domain is sung and incomprehensible to non-proteans, but is commonly called the Drifting Mountain of Narriseminek the Crownless. It is located within the Borderlands between the Maelstrom and Nirvana, and contains a great temple to the Speakers of the Depths, and the mysterious artifact known as the Singing-Luminous Eye of the Speakers.

I’ve checked the wiki, Archives of Nethys, d2opfsrd, but nothing I can find even mentions it.
So is there anything I’ve missed?

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Which site would you recommend buying from for Eye Glasses? I see a few that have some nice styles and I got my prescription yesterday from my eye doctor (I ordered a pair through their office too). I’d like to know how the online sites fare compared to brick and mortar shops?


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terminology – Term “Eye load”?

I am missing a term to describe the mental load which is needed for a human to parse a large menu.

For example I want to switch to google forms:


My eyes need to parse the symbols and/or text to find the right place to click.

I would call it “eye load” but I think this term does not exist.

If you compare this to an autocomplete solution, where a user can enter a text, then an autocomplete solution needs much less “eye load”.

Is there a common UX term for this?

dnd 5e – When can you see through your Ersatz Eye?

The description of the Ersatz Eye from Xanathar’s Guide to Everything reads:

This artificial eye replaces a real one that was lost or removed. While the ersatz eye is embedded in your eye socket, it can’t be removed by anyone other than you, and you can see through the tiny orb as though it were a normal eye.

Upon reading this, my assumption was that a user attuned to it can see through it at all times. However, the sentence is written in what seems to be the most ambiguous way possible. If we take “and” as joining two independent clauses, then the sentence is equivalent to:

“You can see through the tiny orb as though it were a normal eye, and while the ersatz eye is embedded in your eye socket, it can’t be removed by anyone other than you.”

This would imply that the user can see through it whether or not it’s in their head. There are other ways to restructure this sentence with that implication – but there are certainly ways to read it which imply the opposite. If there was no comma before “and”, or if there was a semicolon instead of a comma, then it would be a different matter. However, I believe that rules of English grammar alone will not suffice to resolve this.

Is there any reason to conclude that the eye cannot be seen through while it is removed from the user’s head?

It seems to me that this ability is commensurate with an attunement slot in 5e. Its power would be handily limited by the requirements for attunement – if it’s left somewhere for spying purposes, the user would have to be within 100 feet of it at least once every 24 hours. I can’t say if it fits the power of a Common magic item, though. There are very few Common items which require attunement in 5e, though, and the only directly comparable ones seem to be from Eberron.

multiple monitors – Does working on two laptops with 60HZ and 144HZ simultaneously causes eye tears or blind spots

I am using Alienware 15 R2 since 2016 without any issues, last month I start using ASUS TUF Gaming F15 and while working on both laptops simultaneously I start to have problems with my eyes.

Usually I start my session with Alienware then switch to ASUS TUF, after 20+ mins working on the ASUS I start to feel eye pain, tears and few times headache.

I am using both laptops for business and writing code, not playing games. And in my experience I worked on multiple screens for many years without any issues.

The pain is temporary, after getting 1-3 hours rest my eyes recover

Is what I am experiencing is common while using screens with different refresh rate?

I tired setting the ASUS refresh rate to 60HZ, it helps but it didn’t fix the problem fully!

In case my ASUS screen got a defect, how I would diagnose that? even though it seems pretty fine to me without any errors in event viewer.