Dungeons and Dragons: Is there any text that explains why the planes of Acheron, Gehenna and Carceri are the alignment they are?

Annotated in the thread of your forum, but the best descriptions of Acheron and Carceri that I have seen, based on the actual text, but not directly cited, are those of Jade Ripley (who speaks of Lord_Gareth here and many other places, including GiantITP) . com forums):

  • Acheron

    Acheron does not have architects. None of the exterior planes do it. […]

    Yes, Acheron looks a bit chaotic on the outside. You know what, from the outside Carceri looks a bit licit. But Acheron is not chaotic. Acheron is battle without resolution, law without harmony, order without structure, misery without hope, death without glory, unity without individuality. Acheron is not a plane that hates you; in fact, it is Acheron's total indifference to you that eventually kills you. Acheron is the annoying monotony of despair, and it is the tired horror of cynicism so great that it consumes morality. The sergeant who tires of fighting corruption and accepts bribery goes to Acheron; The office drone that eliminates their misery towards others by providing barriers to real help goes to Acheron. It is the punishment for which there was no crime, the penalty without violation, the monolithic indifference of the Law without moral compass, of conflict without belief, of tyranny without vanity.

    Acheron does not hate you.

    He wants you to die anyway.

  • Carceri

    Carceri, the red prison, is a plane of injustice. Carceri is a mockery of the law and of legal thought, seen through a lens of powerful and counterproductive malevolence. Carceri is full of vain struggles, miserable anguish, trapped rage and a heady mix of hope and despair that drives its inhabitants crazy. From the outside, Carceri seems lawful, it is a prison, after all, but what separates Carceri from ordinary prisons is that no one is in charge, and despite deception to the contrary, no one can be in charge. Although the inhabitants of Carceri make an effort to separate the "prisoners" from the people who "simply live there" (that is, they are not locked in a specific prison complex, prison structure or torment), the truth is that everything is in Carceri. They are prisoners, trapped there by their own fear, hatred, distrust, paranoia, vices, greed, desires and malice.

    And, really, that is Carceri's drive. The Red Prison mocks you with hope, offers to escape and only gives frustration and despair. Even if you leave, it drags you back, proving that any escape is merely temporary. Their "guards" can not leave, and they can not impose order on their prisoners beyond the reach of their weapons. Riots and murders abound, a great mass of hatred and frustration that shakes the bars and shakes the cages, echoing through the plane and mingling with cries of pain and pleasure. Actually, it's not the plane that keeps you there, it's you.

    It was always you. It is the biggest and cruel irony of Carceri. In the end, the reason he will never leave is that even if he was ever fit for society, he never will be again. You can leave Carceri, but Carceri never leaves you.

As for Gehenna, the landscape is rather uniform: a constant slope, a constant rain of fire and rock, and a constant absence of much of everything else. It is an arid landscape, and that uniformity is quite legal.

But always remember that Nobody knows what Law and Chaos really means.. They are nebulously defined and their relationship to the landscape in particular is not often discussed in the books: Acheron, Carceri and Gehenna are those alignments because they are the alignments that the authors provided, and if those authors ever explained their options, No I am aware of it. Even if they do, their considerations will be highly personal and idiosyncratic, because the definitions of Chaos and Laws of all are. There is a reason why nobody has published a Book of discord without restrictions or Book of the perfect dogma– Nobody can specify Chaos and Law well enough to write it. It's all "I know when I see it", except that everyone still disagrees when they've seen it. So, ultimately, it's not surprising that these realms do not seem to match your alignments with you, because your conception of those alignments is yours and, more or less, yours alone. D & D has the presumption that these alignments are objective and universal truths, but the real world does not.

iso noise – Is the following video that explains ISO accurate?

The video explanation of ISO is pretty good but not perfect. It is concentrated in a single pixel (image element). The video shows the red, green and blue light, reproducing in a discrete pixel. In reality, each pixel of a modern color digital camera is subdivided into three sub-pixels, one for red, one for green and one for blue. These are the three clear primary colors. We can photograph and display color images if we register the intensities of these primary colors.

Each of the three sub-pixel sites is covered by a strong transparent filter. The filters are red, green and blue. Thus, each sub-pixel receives 1/3 of the incoming light. Let me add that the sensor site distribution of red versus green and blue is not the same. The distribution is uneven to force the image sensor to imitate the human eye in terms of color sensitivity. Another point, some futuristic sensors have a scattering of unfiltered sites. This method starts the sensitivity of the monkey to light. The software thus concludes the color of the light that reproduces in the unfiltered sites.

When the shutter is opened, each site is bombarded by photon impacts. These are in direct proportion to the colors and intensities of the view being photographed. Photon impacts generate an electrical charge inside the photo site. The more hits, the greater the load. If the view is poorly lit, the light will be weak, the charges at the sensor sites will be very small. If the view is very bright, the charges will be greater but still too small to be of much value. Thus, each site contains an amplifier. The work of the amplifier is to increase the strength of the load to be useful. Each amplifier has its own characteristics, so each one will increase the load in a different way. This is the main cause of what we call noise. This is similar to static in an audio system. The higher we raise the volume, the more static / noise.

ISO (International Standards Origination based in Geneva) is the recognized authority on the sensitivity of photographic film. They develop the test methods used to assign a sensitivity value to an ISO number. Digital images began as a subset of chemical images (film). The digital community closely follows the ISO guidelines when it comes to assigning sensitivity (ISO) values.

Noise in digital images creates artifacts (non-existent image content). There are many types. Noise is a granularity of the image similar to a similar film artifact called "grain." When working in low light conditions, we increase the amplification to allow images in this adverse situation. As we increase the amplification, the static / noise ratio increases, so the image shows the artifact we call noise.

graphical user interface design: what explains the current change from bright UI to matt UI?

It is a pity that nobody has mentioned the impact of the "Aqua" interface of Mac OS X in all this.

Aqua was the name that Apple gave to the style of user interface that it introduced in Mac OS X. It changed the software of the Mac so that it does not look like this:

Screenshot of the MacOS 9 browser that shows the style of the Platinum user interface

… To look like this:

Screenshot of the Mac OS X browser that shows the style of the Aqua user interface

Here is Steve Jobs presenting it for the first time at MacWorld San Francisco 2000. As he says:

One of the design goals was when you saw it, you wanted lick.

There is no doubt that the immense popularity of the iMac was a great influence on the appearance of Aqua with all its buttons and striped and translucent stripes.

The iMac G3 shows colorful plastic, striped fabrics in white and translucency

Aqua was a big change in user interfaces; they were predominantly drawn by the operating system to be defined mainly as layers and layers of bitmap graphics (or even vectors). Windows XP followed this same idea in 2001; his Moon UI looked like this:

Screenshot of Windows XP showing your Luna UI style.

When it was launched, Aqua made a kind of splash similar to that of the iMac when it was first launched. It felt like for the next 5 or more years, everything from third-party designers had an unnecessary brightness:

Some examples of glossy bubble icons found on the Internet.

But even in spite of the popularity of plastic aesthetics of bright and translucent colors, Apple has become increasingly restricted with its hardware designs over time:

Photos of iMac designs from the original G3 model to the first aluminum iMac

The relentless march of material design, simplification and style in the hardware had a similar effect on the software: transparency was reduced, the visibility of stripes faded to disappear completely, the introduction of polished metal interfaces, all the I walk up to something not particularly different. to the old predominantly gray interface of MacOS 9:

Screenshot of Mac OS X v10.2 Jaguar, showing how the interface of previous versions was dimmed

Screenshot of Mac OS X v10.3 Panther, showing the massive expansion of the brushed metal

Screenshot of Mac OS X v10.4 Tiger, showing the reintroduction of more brightness, for example. in the menu bar

Screenshot of Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard, showing the integration of Brushed Metal and Aqua to form the predominantly gray user interface

This change is not specific or exclusive to the Mac; It happened throughout the industry.

Meanwhile, however, iOS was released (then called iPhone OS), which looked like this:

Screenshot of iPhone OS v1.0

And as you almost certainly know, the iPhone and the iOS itself have had great success. Many, many applications (including Skype) were launched with overlays of bright icons so that they look appropriate next to those icons.

But, as Mac OS X went from being exciting and refreshing to a gloomy appearance over the years, the original screen capture of the iPhone's operating system interface is now 6 years old, and now it looks like this:

Screenshot of iOS v6.0

… As you can see, there has been an extremely slow and unusually slow progress with respect to the appearance of Apple's mobile offering.

The old adage says something like:

If you are not improving, you go backwards.

And so, to stay more or less the same, two of Apple's main competitors in that space (Google with Android and Microsoft with Windows Phone) have seized the opportunity to do something radically different, and to advance the state of the art itself themselves, leaving them looking like this:

Screenshot of Android v4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich

Windows Phone 7 screenshot

Updates: I thought I would add a little more comment on the visual languages ​​"Holo" and Android Metro, and how the two manufacturers describe the flatter and less bright aesthetics for designers:

When they first announced the design language of Metro (or as they call it now, the "Microsoft design language"), Microsoft made some veiled blows to the brilliant aesthetics of Apple's iOS. One of the main claims that continue to make is that Metro's flatter and typographic design style is more "honest" and "authentically digital". On its Windows Phone design principles page, Microsoft is quite explicit about it:

Create a clean and useful experience leaving only the most relevant elements on the screen.
When it comes to designing great app experiences, we believe in content, not Chrome.

Focusing on the content on Chrome reduces unnecessary elements, allowing the content of your application to shine. Let people immerse themselves in what they love and explore the rest.

Later they say:

Being authentically digital means going beyond the rules and properties of the physical world to create new and exciting possibilities in a purely digital space. Make the most of the digital medium.

Be "infographic." The delivery of information is the main objective, not the envelope that surrounds it. Adopting the infographic approach will help you optimize the Windows Phone user experience

Regarding the redesign of its logo, Microsoft once again mentions the justification of being "authentically digital" as its reasoning to eliminate brightness:

It was important that the new logo take our Metro principle to be "authentically digital". That is why we want to say that it does not try to emulate false industrial design features, such as materiality (glass, wood, plastic, etc.).

For its part, unfortunately, Google has not been very explicit about their intentions in the creation of Holo. While they have definitely moved strongly towards the so-called flat design style, they have not been particularly explicit about why. With respect to the icons (which are at the center of your question), they simply say:

Use a different silhouette Front three-dimensional view, with a slight perspective as if seen from above, so that users perceive a certain depth.

However, they delve into their developer documentation, where they say (emphasis mine):

Image of Google's developer guidelines, showing what not to do with brightness.
The icons should not be cropped. Use unique forms when appropriate; remember that startup icons must differentiate your application from others. Additionally, Do not use a too glossy finish unless the object depicted has a shiny material.

Its previous Gingerbread design guidelines and earlier (ie, pre-Holo), also explicitly mention the texture ("The icons must have a non-glossy textured material"), with the full description of the materials described as such:

The launcher's icons must use tactile materials, with superior illumination and texturing. Even if your icon is just a simple form, you should try to render it in a way that looks like it's sculpted from some real-world material.

…and then…

Android Launcher icons are …

  • Modern, minimalist, matt, tactile and textured.
  • Color palette oriented forward and upward, complete and limited

Android Launcher icons are not …

  • Old, too complicated, bright, flat vector
  • Rotated, Trimmed, Overlapped

Clearly, it has been the intention of Google and Microsoft practically since the beginning of their respective current mobile operating systems to avoid the aesthetic iOS / Aqua / glossy.

Any book or website that explains macOS / iOS for technicians?

I am a learning technician and I would like to know a book or website that explains certain aspects of macOS and iOS that are not found in the best known books (such as macOS Support Essentials, which I already have).

For example: I am learning how the Photos app organizes photos internally on Apple devices (such as how photo editing is stored, sidecar files, how to restore a damaged photo library, etc.). Is there a website or book related to these everyday things for technicians?

I know my question is a little complicated, but I'm a little tired of having to read article after article and forums to learn this.

Any help very welcome.

Hard drive: what explains the intermittent I / O errors for all attached volumes?

Two external volumes that have I / O errors. This is a small part of the console output. One is an SSD and the other is a normal hard drive. Both are relatively new.

default 18: 46: 56.035095 -0800 kernel disk2s2: I / O error
default 18: 46: 56.084555 -0800 kernel disk3s2: I / O error
default 18: 46: 56.133860 -0800 kernel disk2s2: I / O error
default 18: 46: 56.182963 -0800 kernel disk2s2: I / O error
default 18: 46: 56.232262 -0800 kernel disk3s2: I / O error
default 18: 46: 56.288224 -0800 kernel disk2s2: I / O error

What would explain the I / O errors for two different volumes?

Both are connected directly through a USB-C hub. The same problem occurs when they are connected separately through a USB-C to A cable to my MacBook Pro.

All the diagnostic tools I have tested say that the units are fine. This includes Techtool Pro, Drive Genius and DiskWarrior. The console does not show I / O errors while these tools perform a surface exploration or reconstruction.

When mounted for the first time, both units appear normal, but after 30 to 40 minutes, both remain mounted but all the files are missing in the Finder window. duh from a terminal it shows that all top-level folders are empty but there are no sub-folders. After reassembling each unit, all files are intact.

Is there any way to rule out / hardware problems and if so, how? Could it be an HFS / AFPS problem? Both units are HFS but the start volume is AFPS. At this point I do not believe that they are the units themselves.

mysql: explains in view the derived programs while explaining in select sample type of simple selection

I have a view v which implies a couple of sub-selections in your SELECT clause plus a couple of meetings by I.D or indexed column.

The view query is like:

SELECT col1, col2, (SELECT ... FROM subt) AS COL3 FROM t1 JOIN t2 IGNITION [..]

The fact is that if you consult that view col1, which is pk of t1:

SELECT * FROM v WHERE col1 = & # 39; some value & # 39;

the EXPLAIN shows a lot of DERIVATIVE tables, but if I execute the same query in the view SELECT declaration:

SELECT col1, col2, (SELECT ... FROM subt) AS COL3 FROM t1 JOIN t2 IGNITION [..] WHERE col1 = & # 39; some value & # 39;

those same tables appear as SIMPLE.

How is that? I need to correct that view because it is not using some indexes (although all the links are by pk or indexed columns), but I'm stuck in those DERIVATIVE Rows and I can not go further in my analysis.