C++ Organizing classes for easy unit testing (but with some restrictions)

You don’t have to unit-test everything. Relying on integration or E2E tests is fine, especially when the aspect you want to test is at the interface of two components. Here, you have the interface between your class, and the asynchronous process A.

Testing that A will trigger the correct method call is likely a waste of time: creating this test requires a lot of effort for fairly little value.

However, you can test that handleData() works, with only minimal changes to your design: you just have to separate the callback registration from the rest of the code. For example:

class HandleDataForServerPlugin {
  void handleData(int i) {
    x = b.someFunc(i);
  int getX() const { return x; }
  ClassB b;
  int x{0};

class ServerPlugin: public SomeOtherClass, private HandleDataForServerPlugin {
  ServerPlugin(const Context& ) {
    a.registerCallback((this)(int i) { handleData(i); })
  // re-export some methods
  using HandleDataForServerPlugin::getX;
  ClassA a;

You can now test HandleDataForPlugin directly, without a dependency on the ClassA trigger. Whether the dependency from the server plugin to ClassB is a problem depends on context, here I’ll assume that using this class is an internal implementation detail of the handleData() logic.

Separating a class into an easy-to-test layer and a layer that adapts it to some public API is a pattern I’ve used occasionally when directly testing through the public API would be too cumbersome. In C++, you can also do this without exposing the lower layer publicly, unless you’re implementing a header-only library. Additionally, splitting your classes like this is a zero-cost abstraction in C++.

If this separation is not possible, consider whether your ClassA and ClassB dependencies could not be changed to use an interface, and injected. You can still leave the single-parameter constructor intact.

class ServerPlugin: public SomeOtherClass {
  ServerPlugin(const Context& ctx)
  : ServerPlugin(ctx, std::make_unique<ClassA>(), std::make_unique<ClassB>()) {}

  ServerPlugin(const Context&,
               std::unique_ptr<InterfaceA> a,
               std::unique_ptr<InterfaceB> b)
  : a{a}, b{b} {
    a.registerCallback((this)(int i) { handleData(i); });

  void handleData(int i) {
    x = b.someFunc(i);

  int getX() const { return x; }
  std::unique_ptr<InterfaceA> a;
  std::unique_ptr<InterfaceB> b;
  int x{0};

Dependency injection (here, as constructor injection) is the typical way to solve this kind of issue in other OOP languages. C++ just makes this more difficult because virtual methods are not the default, so the ability to inject a mock implementation for ClassB has to be an upfront design goal.

You will not be able to sensibly test all code paths (the path through the single-parameter constructor). But that path is not very risky since you only select the default ClassA and ClassB types.

entities – how easy it is to get the date when the order is completed?

I need to get the due date (payment) of the last order, but I got some kind of crooked code.

I receive all user orders by request.

      $allOrders = Drupal::entityTypeManager()->getStorage('commerce_order')->loadByProperties(
    ('state' => 'completed',
      'uid' => $uid,

I cannot figure out why the following code is not working


The following code worked for me, I think it is wrong and unnecessary.

      $IndexAr = array_key_last($allOrders);
  $oneIndex = $allOrders($IndexAr);
  $AllValues = $oneIndex->toArray();
  $DataTime = $AllValues("completed")(0)("value");

Here is the data structure:
enter image description here

How easy it is to get customizable or configurable SharePoint software for customer service?

Looking for great option in share point customer care applications which is capable of supporting multilingual operations in the future. We currently operate in California alone, but thinking of getting on to more countries as we began to get acceptable reactions from everywhere California. Possibly the pandemic has affected us emphatically to get more customers, as we are an online crafts and customized gift shop.

We have been running a physical store in CA for the past 10 years without even having an updated website. In any case, we chose to use the Covid-19 scene beneficially and along these lines opened an online store as an experiment!

Presently we need a software with a simple UI, not for the customers but for us as most of my staff are somewhat away from the techie stuff. I would be appreciative on the off chance that you could propose me a straightforward help desk system with a customizable dashboard and easy ticket automation system.

We have been utilizing Microsoft Sharepoint for document management, so it would be simpler for us to learen any Sharepoint application. Feeling that way, I got alluded to dock365’s Sharepoint help desk application, I had the chance to attempt their demo however thought of taking some veteran guidance before falling into it.

I trust I could clearly communicate my requirements, presently it is your chance to give some enthusiasm for my first post and offer some important criticism.

Thanks in advance!

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derivatives – Is calculating of this limit so easy?

I would like to compute following limit:
$$lim_{h to 0} ~~ frac{sqrt{4f(p+h)f(p)-h^2}+f(p)+f(p+h)}{biggl(frac{f(p+h)-f(p)}{h}biggl)^2+1}, ~p in mathbb R$$
Can I just turn it into $2frac{|f(p)|+f(p)}{f'(p)^2+1}$, or should I try something else?
I tried to put $h^2$ in the numerator and then use the L’Hôpital’s rule but the expression inside the limit becomes really complicated, so I would like to evaluate this limit in some easier way.

In what cases is solving Binary Linear Program easy (i.e. **P** complexity)? I’m looking at scheduling problems in particular

In what cases is solving Binary Linear Program easy (i.e. P complexity)?

The reason I’m asking is to understand if I can reformulate a scheduling problem I’m currently working on in such a way to guarantee finding the global optimum within reasonable time, so any advice in that direction is most welcome.

I was under the impression that when solving a scheduling problem, where a variable value of 1 represents that a particular (timeslot x person) pair is part of the schedule, if the result contains non-integers, that means that there exist multiple valid schedules, and the result is a linear combination of such schedules; to obtain a valid integer solution, one simply needs to re-run the algorithm from the current solution, with an additional constraint for one of the real-valued variables equal to either 0 or 1.

Am I mistaken in this understanding? Is there a particular subset of (scheduling) problems where this would be a valid strategy? Any papers / textbook chapter suggestions are most welcome also.

Why is it so easy to breach in the Google Cloud service?

Just for educational/knowledge purposes. Want to know some points regarding this weakness of google cloud or the brilliance of hackers whatever…
Do share your valuable opinions.
Thank you!

Factors To Never Forget For A Super Easy Moving – Newbies Lounge

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