Enchanted Friyay Wilderness! The Minnesota Wilds are once again today before their long haul again, in the direction of, starting again tomorrow night off the Calgary Flames and then the staff heading again in the direction of St https: // www . wildnhlshop.com/Wild_Chris_Stewart_Jersey-8. Paul on Sunday for the return of Mikael Granlund and the Nashville Predators. If you want a bit of hockey on the way out tonight, the Iowa Wild test in the direction of splitting the Bakersfield Condors 17's successful replay streak during the free AHL Television showdown tonight on Fb. : 00 PM CST https://www.wildnhlshop.com/Wild_Ryan_Suter_Jersey-22.Friyay Pleasant Truth: Medical professionals within British Columbia are prohibited from speaking about hockey for the duration of medical procedures https: //www.wildnhlshop. com / Wild_Minnesota_Wild-3. Those accompanying us along the Paseo today is the loner of the Marshall Tucker Band strike. in the direction of Wild Year The Athletic ticket holders The owner of Wild discussed the staff perspective right after the current moves through to GM Paul Fenton and a series of undesirable enjoyment at the Kevin Fi Wing Jersey home. Wild roster change Image: Plunging into the salary cap and list repercussions – StarTribune.com The highest surge in Wild trades in the last thirty-day period experienced many things related to shaking a stale player out of avid gamers. However, they possibly experienced a considerable or much more relationship to planning, even with a minimum of significantly required overall payroll flexibility for a worker who has generally been pressured by the income limit in current years. Personal safety within the monthly position – Outstanding Bemidji region player Brad Hunt is "much more comfortable" immediately after heading to Wild in just one trade. Fiala's point of view immediately inside the dressing room Wild For a man who is currently being traded for the initial season in just his NHL job, Kevin Fiala's move to the Wild dress area was pretty cute in particular. About Frozen Pond What is more fascinating than the returning Jonas Brothers? We'd say some free hockey! Tomorrow the Savages take on the Condors on FacebookWatch! Certainly be in the direction of the song within
W. S. Anglin wrote
Mathematics is not a careful march down a clear road, but a trip to a strange desert, where explorers often get lost. Rigor should be a signal to the historian that the maps were made and that the true explorers went elsewhere.
What virgin areas are being explored these days and by whom?
I wanted to do an official analysis of the engine for zelda: dead end for a long time, but I never had time to do it. However, now that Switch has a new video recording feature, I thought it would be a perfect time to revisit the game and share my thoughts through the video I uploaded on Twitter. I will start with a summary of my findings, but I will also break down each of the technical features at the end of the article to make it easier. To understand. I also try to avoid repetition. Something like Digital Foundry has analyzed some of the engine features and I won't mention them here. The purpose of this publication is to expose more people to technical achievements in the game than others. Do not bother to investigate. Anyway, here is a summary of the characteristics of the engine: • Global lighting | • Local reflections | Local reflections (calculated by Fresnel's reflection) Physics-based representation | • Emitting materials / area lights | • Environmental occlusion of the screen space | • Dynamic wind simulation system | • real-time cloud formation | Real-time cloud deformation (affected by wind) • Rayleigh / Mie highlights | Rayleigh / Mie dispersion • Full volumetric lighting | Full volume lighting • Bokeh DOF and approx. of the circle of confusion | Bokeh DOF and approx. • Volume of occlusion of the sky and dynamic shadow | features functions with occlusion and dynamic shadow volume. at the same time • Highlights of the lower surface | Surface dispersion • Dynamically located from a small lighting illumination | Dynamic local lightning • by pixel Sky Irradiance | Per pixel • Fog injection | Fog light scattering • Particle lights | • Puddle formation and evaporation | water formation and evaporation Global lighting / Radiosity | Global lighting / light transmission First, I want to make it clear that all so-called real-time global lighting schemes have been falsified in some way
So what exactly is light transmission? In the representation of 3D graphics, it is the approximation of the global illumination of the light reflected from different surfaces and the transfer of color information from one surface to another in the process. more reflected light needs to be calculated in order to transmit the appropriate color. The breath motor uses wild light probes to collect color information on different surfaces near the light probes throughout the environment. the basic colors in a given region. The algorithm that wildlife uses to calculate this information is unclear, but my best guess is spherical harmonic functions or something, based on color averages and the location of the energy transfer of light. Unlike Super Mario: Odyssey, The transmission of the energy of light in the breath of nature is not binary but of particles. Robe seems to be included with the LOD system at the same level of representation pipeline, which makes it extremely efficient.
Observation tip: observe how rocky cliffs receive green tones of grass as the camera approaches the area.
At first I assumed that there could be spherical harmonics placed throughout the environment to collect color samples, because the link seems to be updated to the base color as it moves through the environment. However, after further investigation, I now know that these basic color reflections are due to the lack of color changes in the environment. When I tested global lighting in an area with many adjacent different colored surfaces, it became clear how the global lighting system worked. Notice how the link color is transferred to all surfaces oriented in the opposite direction when it touches the red wall. The same is true for the green wall in the opposite direction to the red wall (although the effect is not very strong because the probe is closer to the red wall, so the color of the red wall is reflected more strongly). In fact, at any given point, this will happen in all directions. The ground transmits color upwards, and any roof or colored surface directly above the head of the link transmits color. The probe dynamically samples and transmits colors (we can assume that this is reflected light) because the probe collects more colors for new transmissions and must sample them. Finally, the final result will stop changing because the sample closest to the probe will have the dominant color, regardless of the color change. The process is orderly but very local and fast. The probe has a limited sampling range and applies these results to materials in the world space. Due to this efficiency, the probe can approximate the effect of much reflected light, but only in the area closest to the probe is it accurate.
This is a very important discovery. (other materials are "dyed" red near the red wall) (other materials are also "dyed" green when they are near the green wall) Global lighting actually approximates multiple reflections. A light probe at the head of the link shows the colors of most materials in the environment. Each sampled color is transmitted and reflected in the opposite direction. Interestingly, it is considered that the intensity is influenced by the closest surface of the probe and the intensity of the reflected light. It may not seem obvious outdoors, but global lighting looks good when there are multiple adjacent surfaces. Local Reflections | Local reflections So, an area that has always bothered me since I started analyzing the game seems to be a local reflection. There are so many apparent inconsistencies, because my theory first flew. Now I can say with confidence that I have solved the mystery of how local reflection works. Clearly, this is a triple approach based on specific circumstances. • Specular lighting | Specular lighting Sunlight, skylight, lightning and spot sources fall into this category. At first I thought the same was true for temples and towers (since they are self-luminescent, I assumed they were regional light sources), but that was ruled out when I saw the very revealing artifacts that showed temples and towers. Not all luminous materials can illuminate the environment, and temples and towers can be attributed to those who cannot. • Opening mapping | reflections If the term sounds new, it can be. Based on the game's text dump, wild breath developers marked their views on the unreal scene of Engine 4 to capture 2D reflections. The environment is reflected in this way. Virtual cameras over the link head (opening, specifically) have a relatively small field of view, so as the links move, the reflections (shown in real time) move in their proper space until the opening Capture the environment again. You can see this type of processing trace and see it in the video below. • Reflections in the screen space | Screen reflections Only those that appear laminated use this model, and these are limited to the temples. A number on the brightness map tells the engine to use reflections in the screen space only for these materials. They reflect everything on the screen and can be seen from the incident corners of any material. However, these materials also use the opening mapping to reflect the environment, which is one of the sources of my confusion. The incongruity of these reflections led me to make assumptions about other materials outside the temple. Fortunately, we have clarified this. Observation tip: See how the reflection of the link compares with that of the blue light. Link has to be on the screen to show the reflection, and the blue light does not have to be on the screen to show the reflection. (screen space reflection + mirror reflections) Mystery of local reflection solved! (The front walls are not reflected, while the side walls are.) Mystery of local reflection solved! Well, temple materials have an additional layer of brightness and reflection, but they also use the same reflection model for external reflections. No wonder it's so confusing! Using a bright material, you can capture the reflection of everything in the screen space (reflection of the screen space). Using non-bright materials (almost all external materials), capture 2D reflections of the scene using almost the same techniques used in the unreal engine 4 to capture environmental reflections. Basically, the virtual camera (which has its own field of vision and visual) is located directly above the head of the link, always looking towards the horizon of the main camera, regardless of the orientation of the link (allowing limited reflections outside the screen). The captured image is fed to a reflective material, as if transmitting a live signal to a television. This means that the image feed is projected in real time at any frame rate (30 frames) that the game is running. This allows different material elements to be updated without waiting for a new capture. However, the actual capture screen is updated at a much lower frame rate (4 to 5 frames). You can see this whenever the scene captures the camera moving from its absolute position. Before updating the capture reflection, the image currently captured within the material (for example, water) moves in any direction that the camera moves in real time (30 frames). However, once the material receives the updated capture, it corrects the reflection. This correction delay allows us to really understand the capture of updates throughout the monitoring of the material (4 to 5 frames). (The reflection of the bridge column is slightly delayed) As you can see here, the outdated reflection can still follow the link movements without problems. There is no caton. The reflection is corrected when the new capture is updated. This works differently to a reflection map, which updates the reflection only when the map itself is updated. At this point, the captured reflex is clearly outdated, but still changes its position at a rate of 30 frames. You can see the field of view of the capture camera in the following gifs: (since there is no color reflected in the material at the end of the horizon camera's line of sight) Now it makes sense why all non-luminous materials only They have Fresnel reflections. With this reflective technique, these are the only angles it works with! I came across this arc and realized that it was the perfect scenario to measure and capture the camera's field of vision: let's do some basic trigonometry. I estimate that the horizontal field of view is approximately 115 °. The reflection of the arc is off the screen before the link goes through it, so we know that it is definitely not a 180-degree field of vision, because if it were, the reflection of the arc would not be a visual error like this. You can also see that when the camera is a few meters from the arch and perpendicular to it, the reflection is inclined and proportional to the field of view, which allows us to observe its width. Measures the relative horizontal field of view of the scene captured by the camera. But I want to reiterate that this is only an approximate estimate, so it could be about 10 degrees from the top, but it is impossible to use this field of vision at some angles, so by excluding, we can at least have an estimate. Physics-based representation | Before anyone asks, no, that does not mean "the material that looks physically correct." This is just one way to apply 3D graphics rendering pipes, where all materials (textured surfaces) interact with light in a unique way that changes their behavior. This is what happens in the real world, that's why it's called physics-based rendering. Different materials make the light behave differently, so we can visually distinguish between different surfaces. Traditionally, rendering channeling is based on the artist's understanding of how light interacts with different real-world materials and defines the texture map based on that understanding. As a result, there are many inconsistencies between different texture surfaces and how they compare with their real-world counterparts (which is understandable, since we cannot expect an artist to have an encyclopedic knowledge of everything in the real world). For PBR, the fundamental principle of light physics is part of the pipe itself, and all textured surfaces are classified as having unique properties that will make the light behave according to these unique properties. This allows different surfaces to be placed under different lighting conditions and dynamic camera angles, and dynamically adjusts the way light interacts with these surfaces. Artists do not have to predefine this interaction as traditional workflows do. Everything is automatic. Due to the efficiency of the PBR, the developers wanted to make games where all the materials have unique qualities that affect the light. In a wild breath, your PBR has an artistic touch, so you may not even notice that your engine is based on those pipes, because the textures do not necessarily have to appear realistic. However, it is clear that the BDRF (bidirectional reflection distribution function) used in the materials makes the motor useful for PBR. For each dynamic illumination, its mirror reflections (the light itself shows part of the reflective surface) and the specular reflectivity / refractive index is based on the angle of incidence (the angle of the incident light in relation to the surface normals) and the light interacts with the index of refraction. of any material (when the contact of the light with the surface, the material of "bending" and how much light) is generated dynamically. If the game USES traditional tubes, there is not much difference between the specular reflections assigned between wood and metal. But in this game, the mirror reflections depend entirely on the material with which the light interacts. Another key factor that indicates the use of PBR in nature's breath is the Fresnel (s silent) | Fresnel reflection on all materials. First of all, most games that use traditional pipes do not even use Fresnel reflection, because it is better to use only PBR. As I explained earlier in my discussion of local reflections, the Fresnel reflex becomes visible at the incident coincident angle (the angle at which the incident light is almost parallel to the surface at which the perspective of the observer / camera interacts). According to the Fresnel reflection coefficient, all materials reach 100% reflectivity at the angle of incidence, but the effectiveness of the reflectivity will depend on the roughness of the material. Therefore, programmers can distinguish between reflectivity and refractive index. Some materials reflect light in all directions (diffuse materials). Even at 100% reflectivity, 100% of the light can be reflected from the entire surface area, but not all of the light is reflected in the same direction, so the light is distributed evenly and no specular reflection is seen ( the mirror image around the surface). Other materials only reflect the incoming light in the opposite direction (mirror material), so you can only see the reflection at the correct angle, almost 90% of the light is reflected. Specular and diffuse reflectance the reflectivity of a material is not always 100%, even at an incident angle, so that no material can see a perfect specular reflection at an incident angle, even in the real world. The clarity of Fresnel's reflection will vary with the material that produces the reflection. Observation tip: Notice how the green light in the barrel wood looks the same from all angles, and this same green light also seems to change the reflection of the metal ring (the metal circle in the barrel). This is easy. The material of the luminous object provides a unique light source to illuminate the environment in the same way as the material itself. These are not sources of point light that propagate in all directions, or even simple sources of directional light that illuminate in one direction. It is important to keep in mind that only global sources (sun / moon / rays) cast shadows. However, the bidirectional reflection distribution function still applies to all light sources in the game. Observation tip: observe the shape of the light projected by the sword of fire. This shape coincides with the shape of the sword itself, but the intensity of the light will depend on the distance between the sword and the surface it illuminates. Screen Space Environmental occlusion | In the real world, when the light is reflected in the environment, a certain amount of "ambient light" will color the environment, making it completely diffuse. If the shadow is the product of blocking the object of direct sunlight, then the shielding of the ambient light can be considered as the product of the space that blocks the ambient light in the environment. The scheme used in the breath of nature is called SSAO (environmental shading of the screen space) because it calculates the environmental shading of the screen space and depends on the point of view. It receives ambient light only when it is perpendicular to the camera. Observation tip: when viewed from the front, look for dark and shaded noise mode effects in the gaps in the walls. The same noise pattern describes the link profile from this angle. Dynamic wind simulation system | This one surprised me because I had no idea that it would be so powerful. Basically, the physical system is related to the wind simulation system. It is completely dynamic and affects different objects according to their weight. The most prominent objects affected are the grass and the cloud generated by the program. Observation tip: if you look closely, you can see how the directional flow of grass and clouds matches the direction of the wind. Real time cloud formation | Real-time cloud formation This game does not use traditional sky boxes in any way. The cloud is generated programmatically based on the parameters set by the engine. They cast shadows in real time. They receive light information based on the position of the sun in the sky. To my knowledge, the cloud is considered the real material of the game. They are not volumetric clouds, so you do not see any separation light or anything like that, but they are not sky box clouds either. They are also made up of wind systems. Observation tip: observe how cloud particles in the sky are randomly grouped Rayleigh, Mie, | In the real world, when light reaches the Earth's atmosphere, it is dispersed by air molecules, creating the blue sky of the Earth, because the shorter wavelengths of blue light scatter more easily than other colors. However, as the sun approaches the horizon, it has to pass through a greater part of the atmosphere, which causes most of the blue light to disperse when the light reaches the spectator's glasses, leaving long lengths of Orange and red light wave to reach the naked eye. Wild breath mathematically approximates this algorithm (I actually found it earlier this year in the text dump code!). Apparently, this algorithm also explains the dispersion of me that allows fog to appear in the sky. To be honest, if I hadn't looked at the code in the text dump, I would never have thought of emulating this phenomenon in the game. It is easy to fake this effect. However, after observing the reflection of the sky in the water, everything made sense. This scattered light is recovered in the environment in real time. A simple sky box would make this impossible. Observation tip: observe how the different shades of orange and red in the sky reflect the same color in the environment. Although this is not shown in the GIF, the light scattered in the sky also illuminates the environment and the surface of the water in other colors, depending on how the light is scattered. Observation tip: observe how the color of the snow changes as the sun sets. Observation suggestion: at the beginning of this GIF, the water has at least five different reflections. Temple (blue), hill (green), flag (black outline), sky (orange) and sun (pink).
I like most of the dark mode in Mojave, however, I prefer the image of & # 39; desert & # 39; from light mode to blue-gray that appears in dark mode. Is there any way to use the image in light mode when I turn on dark mode?
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