pathfinder 2e – Surprise attack when talking and defending from this

Surprise round and reaction is not clear for me.
We have a scenario, two characters talk, for example character X and Y. Character X says that they will hit character Y and talk again.

Now the player of character X decides to hit character Y.

Is there any way to self defense by character Y? My GM say that if character X has higher initiative and is not surprised, it can defend itself effectively because this action will be done before Y attacks, so it will seem to be aggressor, not Y. Most possible actions (for example, a free action in this scenario is to cast a bloodrage spell to buff defense) are unable to do in an enemy’s turn so character X can’t use this one moment before taking a hit from Y in Y’s turn. Is there any way to take a free action or other defense action without looking like an aggressor within pure mechanics scope?

Defending against Wiegand sniffing (ESPKey) attacks in RFID card readers

It’s known that card readers, which use the Wiegand format, can be attacked by installing a sniffer, such as an ESPKey. After the sniffer is installed, whenever anyone uses the reader, their credentials get saved, and the attacker can clone them.

What is the defense against this? The article mentions that card readers have a tamper sensor. Is a correctly installed tamper sensor enough to thwart this attack? What exactly does the tamper sensor do, and what happens when it’s set off?

Also, since ESPKey attacks specifically target the interceptable wiegand protocol, is there some other protocol which provides secure communications? Many articles cite Wiegand as being the most common protocol. What percentage of card readers are vulnerable to this attack, and what’s the next most common non-vulnerable protocol?

So in November, a Democrat vote is a vote for chaos and anarchy and a Republican vote is a vote for defending civilization. ?

I love how Trump supporters pretend trump isn’t the CURRENT president and republicans don’t control the Supreme Court, Justice Department and Senate.

It’s like you are more in your comfort zone criticizing those in charge then telling us how great it is when your side is in charge.   

Spoiler Alert:  It’s not great with Trump in Charge.  It’s not great with a republican senate and supreme court.  It actually sucks.  

And that’s going to suck for republicans in november.

Why is America so racist now? I see many comments defending Trump and the police officer?

Trump very likely has nothing to do with this and the police officer, while wrong, didn’t intend to kill anyone. He was operating with the same level of disrespect that any of them have for any other human being, which I mean you kind of have to have in the business.

He deserved to be fired. He and his group killed someone. He’ll probably be rehired, which I would vehemently disagree with, but burning down a store isn’t going to fix that. That just gives us a very good reason why officers like that exist. Not one person can make a reasonable, causal connection from fires and violence to softer police.

"Ask China"? Why is Trump such a vile and self-righteous racist, and why are his supporters still defending him?

Shut the hell up @ $$ hole. Your race caused problems for the rest of the world, including me.

I had to rub my mouth for your race, for the coronavirus that your race spread throughout the world. I had a negative result for coronavirus, so I don't have it.

I also have other problems and am trying to fix it.

I hope that all countries close their borders to China and no longer allow the Chinese to enter other countries.

I read and saw a lot about what China did, and I think it's gross.

The virus exists in all countries, you are right about it NOW. Coronavirus or covid-19 is found in many different countries.

I've never been to China, and I don't want to go either. I hope NO ONE goes to China!

I am NOT a Trump supporter. China probably got on his nerves like he did mine.

I think you should watch your back. I don't know what country you live in. Trump was kind enough to defend Chinese Americans, but NO ONE is defending the Chinese in my country. Yes, I saw Trump defend Chinese Americans.

BTW, I don't live in the United States.

soft question: how to publish important research, defending authorship, even if its applications are problematic?

Suppose an amateur mathematician solved a large open problem from the past, such as the Riemann hypothesis. He wants his work to be reviewed and published. What are the precise steps you have to take to defend your authorship? And the problems with applications, such as cryptography?

Liberals defending the highest US casualties and economic ruin from this virus are absolutely embarrassing. Are you surprised at all?

WHO?! Name them.

No one wants to lose their jobs, no one wants to lose their businesses or their older relatives. No one will find that facing poverty is worth saying they were right about Trump.

You are rubbish if you say this without anyone naming it. So let's listen to it. Are you garbage or not?

Do you want to talk about honest politics ?:

People like you voted for that man and plan to vote for him again. Why do the rest of us deserve economic plague and depression due to brain-dead zombies like you? Why do we have to suffer for people like you? You are so stubborn. You voted this man into the presidency. You don't want to admit that this man is a terrible president. None of our other presidents allowed the other outbreaks to become pandemics because they worked on the outbreaks abroad. None of the other presidents let an outbreak that came here affect our economy. Millions will die now that they didn't have to. It is not a political thing. It is this particular president. He didn't have what it took to protect us. He didn't have the confidence to face CoVid-19, he put Pence in charge. You vote for him and he wins again. Any of those future deaths that happen that won't be necessary is in YOUR hands. You are delusional if you want to believe that it was not the president's responsibility.

As far as I'm concerned, all of you who voted for Trump. Those millions of dying who did not need, their blood is also on your hands. Brainwashed people like you deserve the plague and poverty. I just wish the rest of us aren't like you don't have to be dragged along with you.

We are facing the world crisis. I blame you and everyone else like you. You are to blame. Putting everyone in power those who didn't want to protect us, not wanting to give foreign aid, cutting natural resource budgets, cutting the CDC budget last month, cutting health budgets but wanting to finance the most expensive wall ever built. I BLAME YOU. Our nation is the most powerful nation in the world, it has been the world police since FDR. This is why we have become so powerful, we have benefited extremely from trade. Our world police state kept our people protected for so long. Our nation to be as rich as it is, connected to all information and governments in this world has no reason why we cannot protect our country and our people when outbreaks occur abroad. When outbreaks occur abroad, our country has had the position to intervene, provide aid, work with that government, and learn more about the virus before it arrives. Did TRUMP even try to take on that responsibility last year or in January when they told you it was likely to turn into a pandemic rather than apprehensively saying stocks were well despite collapsing?

If Trump becomes our president again and continues to put people in power for pandemics, global recessions to occur, our natural parks become unpleasant due to funding cuts, if we get to the point where fresh water is no longer a Abundant resource, our resources become limited and not only our country, the whole world goes to hell. I BLAME YOU. If we stop getting quality food, YOU are to blame for empowering all those people who change policy on behalf of corporations where consumers are not protected. YOU ARE THE PROBLEM

DO YOU UNDERSTAND IT? !!!! You are the misfortune. His stubbornness and delusions that make these choices make him a disgrace.

The problem with people like you is that you don't feel like you're doing well unless you know other people are worse off than you. You put in power people who only protect people in your tax category. The privileged If the playing field is leveling out, giving those people at the bottom the chance to change their situation, but you don't see a benefit happening to you, you think that no one is fighting for you while nothing bad is happening to you. because someone worse than you gets help, people like you raise hell. You are not the party that wants to shake up the status quo because you are the status quo. You don't want anyone to move the tax brackets but you.

Dems, if President Hillary Clinton had ordered the attack against Solemani, do you know that she would be defending that decision firmly? Be honest?

If I had sent 5 units to catch him, he would be called a genius, a true hero, he would handle the situation as a true leader.

The Democrats praised Obama when he made the Navy Seals go to Bin Laden's house with women and children inside and killed him and dragged his body to the street, women and children were killed in that raid, and Obama was praised as a true Leader.

Obama interrupted television broadcasts to Brag about what he did, how he stopped the terror.

Trump had a terrorist general and his bodyguards (without women or children) and did not kill in a residential area and abuse his power

The Democrats are hypocrites and know that they will lose the 2020 elections.

How can we help conservatives understand that the political trial investigation is nothing personal against Trump, he is only defending the constitution?

If the Democrats had not asked for Trump's impeachment before he swore, it would be more credible. What laws did you break in office before your inauguration?

Since then there has been a constant drumming rhythm for the political trial. Like every accusation, every excuse for the political trial failed, it was replaced by the following.

Collusion with Russia, emoluments, pressure, extortion, quid pro quo and now bribery.

Are you surprised that everyone thinks you're just looking for an excuse to accuse?

Why were I suspended from school after defending Hitler's legacy in my History class?

Ha very funny. What legacy was that? Abandoning the British? French? Russians? Japanese? Raping young children?

Fans who identify with perverts really need control. You will never be completely perverted, unless you become a Muslim.

Then you will have access to the small children you want. African slaves have paved a fairly good path for working-class children for those wicked oil barons and their Muslim mullah coverage leads the way.

Pop pop goes to the buttocks of those "working-class hero" children, all greased and ready for those Muslim oil scrap makers.