np complete – Concrete example of reduction of vertex cover to sum of subset

In Computational Intractability, we often find the need to reduce the problem of vertex cover (VC) to a problem of sum of subsets …

We make?

… mainly to prove that Subset Sum is NP-Complete.

There is no particular reason to follow that route. Karp (1) defined the problem of the backpack as: given $ a_1, points, a_r, b in mathbb {Z} $, there is a set $ S subseteq {1, dots, r } $ such that $ sum_ {i in S} a_i = b $? This is a variant of what is now called Subset Sum. If you prefer to define Subset Sum in such a way that $ b $ It's always zero, we'll come back to that in a minute.

Karp shows that Subset Sum is public notary-complete for the chain of reductions
$$ text {SAT} leq text {3SAT} leq text {Color number} leq text {Exact cover} leq text {Subset Sum} ,. $$
In particular, reducing Exact Cover to Subset Sum produces an instance where the $ a_i $& # 39; s and $ b $ they are all positive, therefore, if you want to define Subset Sum as "is there a subset whose total is zero?", you can set $ a_ {r + 1} = – b $.

Since Subset Sum and Vertex Cover are both public notary-completely, there is clearly a reduction between them. However, you should not expect a "nice" reduction in which a small instance of VC naturally transforms into a small instance of Subset Sum that makes it say: "Aha, now I understand." And that applies to most pairs of public notary-complete problems. In complexity theory courses, we teach simple and intuitive reductions, usually between problems that are similar in some way, or between SAT or 3SAT and a problem that is not about Boolean formulas. That may give the impression that there is a natural reduction between any pair of public notary-complete problems; Actually, there usually isn't.


(1) Richard M. Karp, Reducibility between combinatorial problems. In Complexity of computers, Plenum Press, 1972. (PDF)

optimization: estimation of cardinality of rank predicates that partially cover

At this moment I am trying to discover how Sql Server evaluates the cardinality of the range predicates that partially cover the passage of the histogram.

On the Internet, in cardinality-estimation-for-and-within-step-statistics-value I found a similar question and Paul White gave him a pretty interesting answer.

According to Paul's answer, the formulas for estimating cardinality for predicates> = and> (in this case, I'm only interested in the cardinality estimator model of at least 120) are the following:

To>:

Cardinality = EQ_ROWS + (AVG_RANGE_ROWS * (F * (DISTINCT_RANGE_ROWS - 1)))

To> =:

Cardinality = EQ_ROWS + (AVG_RANGE_ROWS * ((F * (DISTINCT_RANGE_ROWS - 1)) + 1))

I tested the application of these formulas in (Production). (TransactionHistory) from the AdventureWorks2014 database based on the range predicate using the TransactionDate column and the date and time range between & # 39; 20140614 & # 39; and & # 39; 20140618 & # 39 ;.

The statistics for the passage of the histogram of this range are as follows:

Histogram

According to the formula, I calculated the cardinality for the following query:

SELECT COUNT(1)
FROM (AdventureWorks2014).(Production).(TransactionHistory)
WHERE (TransactionDate) BETWEEN '20140615 00:00:00.000' AND '20140616 00:00:00.000'

The calculation was performed using the following code:

  DECLARE @predStart DATETIME =  '20140615 00:00:00.000'
  DECLARE @predEnd DATETIME = '20140616 00:00:00.000'

  DECLARE @stepStart DATETIME = '20140614 00:00:00.000'
  DECLARE @stepEnd DATETIME = '20140618 00:00:00.000'

  DECLARE @predRange FLOAT = DATEDIFF(ms, @predStart, @predEnd)
  DECLARE @stepRange FLOAT = DATEDIFF(ms, @stepStart, @stepEnd)

  DECLARE @F FLOAT = @predRange / @stepRange;

  DECLARE @avg_range_rows FLOAT = 100.3333
  DECLARE @distinct_range_rows INT = 3
  DECLARE @EQ_ROWS INT = 0

  SELECT @F AS 'F'

  --for new cardinality estimator

  SELECT @EQ_ROWS + @avg_range_rows * (@F * (@distinct_range_rows - 1) + 1) AS (new_card)

After calculating, I got the following results:

enter the description of the image here

According to the formula, it turned out 150.5, but the optimizer estimates the predicate at 225.75 rows, and if you change the upper edge of the predicate to & # 39; 20140617 & # 39 ;, the optimizer will already evaluate 250,833 rows, while using the formula we only get 200.6666 rows.

Please tell me, how do you evaluate the Cardinality Estimator in this case? Maybe I made a mistake somewhere when I understood the cited formulas.

Thank you.

Insofta Cover Commander 5.9.0 RePack & Portable by TryRooM – NulledTeam UnderGround

Language: multilingual + Russian | File size: 36.56 MB

Cover Commander creates custom-designed three-dimensional virtual boxes and mockups for your software, e-books, iPhone / iPad applications, manuals and even screenshots. A simple image, the Cover Commander Wizard and a few mouse clicks are all that is needed to do the job. The program's extensive light, shadow and reflection controls allow you to render a frame or cover of almost any complexity and view the final product as it is being done in the preview window in real time. The smart project creation assistant does the complex work for you, so you can concentrate on the creative part of your project.

Reasons to go with Cover Commander

Compose a scene of several 3D objects.
3D models: box, disk box, disk, screenshot, curved screen capture, book, thin book, manual, Vista box, card, spiral book, laptop, iMac (computer), screen, iPhone 6s / SE / 5c, Samsung Galaxy S6, Nexus 9, iPad, iPad with cover, Blu-ray box, Blu-ray disc, monitor, TV, DVD box, DVD case with disc, CD case, CD case with disc .
Let the built-in assistants do the dirty work for you and focus on the artistic details of the cover.
Create several projects, analyze several images with a single command (batch mode).
Save the resulting image with a transparent background and use the image for complex web or print designs.
Save the light, shadow and reflection settings with a unique name and use those settings in other projects.
Set the size of the resulting image (up to 4000×4000) and the margins in pixels.
Attract your customer's attention with an animated box, cover or screenshot.
Do not pay more than it really costs to create a great cover. Create additional covers at no cost!

An image, a wizard and a mouse click
Cover Commander creates custom-designed three-dimensional virtual boxes and mockups for your software, e-books, iPhone / iPad applications, manuals and even screenshots. A simple image, the Cover Commander Wizard and a few mouse clicks are all that is needed to do the job. The program's extensive light, shadow and reflection controls allow you to render a frame or cover of almost any complexity and view the final product as it is being done in the preview window in real time. The smart project creation assistant does the complex work for you, so you can concentrate on the creative part of your project.

Speaking your language
The Cover Commander user interface is available in several languages, so it doesn't matter where you live and what language you speak; You can still create high quality covers that sell your product and help you become the number one in your market.

What's new :
• A new 3D model was added: brochure.
• Now you can choose not only an image, but also a color as texture.
• Added support for TIFF format for textures.
• Thumbnails view mode has been added for the texture list.
• Improved display of file names and tooltips in Details mode.
• Few minor improvements to the interface.
• Several minor bugs fixed.

Mounting information
Type: installation, unpacking (portable by TryRooM)
Languages: multi / Russian
· Treatment: performed, key-Keygen RadiXX11.
· Optional: select the Settings.reg file

Command Line Switches:
· Silent installation of the Russian version: / VERYSILENT / I / RU
· Silent installation of the English version: / VERYSILENT / I / EN
Silent unpacking: / VERYSILENT / P
· Do not create desktop shortcuts: / ND
Do not create a shortcut in the Start menu: / NS

Choose an installation location: / D = WAY
The key / D = PATH should be the most recent
For example: install_file.exe / VERYSILENT / I / D = C: MyProgram

HOMEPAGE

Download from UploadGig

Download from RapidgatorDownload from Nitroflare

Gnome Hide Top Bar makes desktop icons from the top bar cover

Just like the automatic hiding of the dock makes it cover the desktop icons, Hide Top Bar, which automatically hides the top bar, makes it cover the desktop icons. How can i fix this?

Screenshot of the top bar that covers the desktop icon

9.0 foot: for incoming calls, the Phone application does not start to cover the entire screen

In case of an incoming call, the Telephone application does not start to cover the entire screen. Instead, two buttons are displayed at the top of the screen, Reject (red) and Reply (green), as shown below:

enter the description of the image here

How can I recover the usual behavior of the Phone application when it covers the entire screen of an incoming call, so that a single slide button can be displayed to answer or reject the call?

I am running Android 9.0 on a General Mobile GM 8 device.

Attractive cover photo and profile of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube for $ 10

Attractive cover image and profile of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube

Are you looking for creative, unique, premium quality and professional? Facebook cover, Twitter header, Youtube channel art, Google Plus Cover, Instagram profile for your personal page / timeline / event or group cover? Order my package with confidence.
You can send me any design by inspiration or You can leave all the design to my own creative contribution

Thank you for visiting us and we await your questions or orders!

My other concerts:

———————-
1. Superior quality logo design, professional and unique for $ 15
https://www.seoclerks.com/Graphics…ique-Logo-Design

2. Design a premium, professional, impressive, surprising and eye-catching business card to $ 10
https://www.seoclerks.com/business…hy-Business-Card

3. Write and publish posts on your website or blog to $ 5
https://www.seoclerk.com/Guest-Pos…-Website-Or-Blog

4. Premium quality advertising banner design: Adroll, Google and Web Banner for $ 10
https://www.seoclerks.com/Banner-A…e-and-Web-Banner

Send me a message for any kind of question or question.

.

What part of the system will cover the safe boot?

Background: We are developing a Debian 9.8 system, but the space in which we are operating is dominated by integrated devices.

According to Wikipedia, secure boot can "ensure the boot process by preventing the loading of operating system drivers or chargers that are not signed with an acceptable digital signature." I guess this means that the kernel level code is protected, but that the user level code is not protected.

I have some terminological confusion with my boss, who has the impression that Secure Boot can protect the entire operating system. I believe that Secure Boot can secure the entire system only when the computer in question is an integrated device (you will never receive software updates, therefore, you can group all executable things and sign them). If the device is your typical PC, secure boot cannot practically keep it safe (your PC is receiving software updates all the time, which means that an executable block would be changing all the time, which means it would have to recalculate / return to sign the entire block with each update).

Am I right or is he? Is there an easy way to extend Secure Boot protections to our custom user level software? Is there anything similar to safe startup that you should consider to protect the software at the user level?

Cover design: 24-hour delivery for $ 19

Hello!

I am a professional graphic designer.
I will create an attractive cover for your singles and albums.

3000 x 3000 pixels Mockups Source file Unlimited revisions
Do not hesitate to contact me!

by: justsz
Created: –
Category: Art and Design
Viewed: 5


.

dnd 5e – Cover of many things. What happens if you don't declare any number of cards and just start stealing?

You just can't do that. I understand that it may sound strange, but the text of the deck indicates that you "must", so if you want to take it out you must declare how many cards you want to draw.

I would say that this question makes as much sense as asking "what happens if I act on the initiative of another person in combat?" You just can't do that.

However, you and your table may find that argument strange, and make a decision to allow someone to remove from the deck without declaring a number of cards (for example, if you draw without a statement, it is presumed to be 1, so you activate as you draw or something else).