How unusual would contact-printing be for a portrait studio’s commercial output?

It wasn’t at all unusual for small, local portrait studios to print using the direct contact method during the time in which Disfarmer worked from about 1915 until his death in 1959. Most small studios that concentrated on producing family portraits for the people living in the immediate area around the studio probably did not even have the needed enlarger to do the kinds of exposure manipulation – dodging, burning, unsharpen mask, etc. – that we associate with fine art techniques fully developed in the mid-20th century by photographers such as Ansel Adams, Edward Weston, and William Van Dyke in the western U.S. and by the developers at studios such as Magnum in the eastern U.S.

Another reason the use of enlargers wasn’t popular in the very early days of photography was the lack of a suitable stable light source until proper electric bulbs were invented and the electrification needed to power them had spread across the landscape. Even the sun moves in the sky fast enough that a system of mirrors to constantly adjust for that movement was needed if sunlight was used to produce enlargements on the slow reacting papers of the time. If Heber Springs, Arkansas was like most typical towns in the American South, the rural areas weren’t fully electrified until either just before or just after WWII. Since the negative sits directly over the printing paper for contact prints, the angle of the light used to expose the paper is much less critical.

Retouching certainly did go on at the time Defarmer began, but it was done directly to the negative before printing or sometimes to the finished print. Techniques including scraping with knives, drawing on top of the negative or print with graphite or ink, or even combining more than one negative either by placing one over the other or by cutting and pasting different parts of different negatives and attaching them together for making a contact print. With such techniques, contact prints from the altered negatives were still the main way prints were made.

What was unusual about Disfarmer’s technical method was his use of glass plate negatives long after pretty much the rest of the world had moved to film for the type of work he was doing: taking portraits of the local inhabitants of the area surrounding his modest studio in Heber Springs, Arkansas. Large sheet film was introduced in 1913 and rapidly replaced glass plates for large format portraits, yet Disfarmer didn’t finally switch over until near the very end of his career which lasted until his death in 1959.

When Disfarmer started around 1915, Ansel Adams was 13 years old. Willard Willard van Dyke was 9 years old and four years away from taking up photography. Weston was just beginning to make a name for himself after moving away from the large commercial studios in Los Angeles to open his own ‘Little Studio’ in Tropico, CA in 1910. He had just met Margrethe Mather, who was a major influence on Weston’s style, sometime late in 1913.

Although retouching was already being practiced (that was what Weston was doing for a living in L.A. before he struck out on his own), outside of the major commerce centers of fine art photography in places such as New York, L.A., Chicago, etc. the use of enlargers wasn’t that common.

The local portrait studios scattered in towns across the country were the “descendants” of the self-contained wagon studios that travelled the countryside in the mid to late 19th century. With wet collodion glass plates, the most common form of negative until the 1870s, the emulsion had to be mixed, spread on the glass plate, exposed, and developed within about 10 minutes. The primary skill set a potential photographer needed was the ability to quickly mix chemicals precisely and consistently each time a photo was taken so that the resulting emulsion had a predictable enough sensitivity that the exposure time would be correct.

But what has made prints of Mike Defarmer’s portraits so desirable by collectors has very little if anything to do with his use of glass plates or of direct contact prints. What makes his work desireable is the entire story of how he came to make these photos and the way he made them without trying to pose his subjects the way most portraitists at the time did. As Michael Mattis, who is most responsible for the ‘second revival” of interest in Defarmer’s portraits, said years later:

… in my view, it is this unique insider/outsider mix, so evident in the pictures themselves, that is the essence of his genius, and the reason why – despite three decades of intense searching – no other studio photographer from that era has been uncovered whose accomplishment remotely matches Disfarmer’s.

This is directly related to the entire mystique surrounding his self-instigated name change, the way he would carry his tripod around town while riding his horse wearing a Zorro-like cape (at a time when most people had long since moved from horseback to automobiles for personal transportation), and the way he would take the photo without warning his subjects or allowing them to pose first. It was probably also related to the fact that he was a bachelor, loner, atheist, and photographer in a small rural Arkansas town that had no other photographers, no other (publically acknowledged) atheists, and probably very few bachelors or anyone else that took being an eccentric loner to such extremes.

In an interview for the local newspaper (who printed it in the “Stranger than Fiction” section!) about why he changed his last name from Meyer to Disfarmer, he claimed that he was delivered to his parent’s doorstep by a tornado. He also made it very clear that he changed his name because his surname at birth, Meyer/Meier/Meijer, was German for “dairy farmer” and he didn’t want to be a farmer or associated with farming in any way. This he said in a small town in which just about everyone, including Disfarmer, made their living farming or by providing goods and services to farmers and their families!

Some of his clients described the experience of being photographed by Disfarmer as “very spooky and scary”. He would disappear under the hood of his camera for long lengths of time and then suddenly take the photo without warning. “Instead of telling you to smile he just took the picture. No cheese or anything.”

In Google Analytics, how to distinguish between the users who accepted the cookies and the ones who didn’t, for further commercial use?

I want to collect data in Google Analytics 4, with a rule as such:

  • if the user accepts the cookies, the data may be reused for commercial purposes, mainly through Google Ads
  • if the user refuses the cookies or does nothing, the data are still collected for analytics purposes

I know the second case is kind of borderline with GDPR, since Google Analytics may reuse the information, but it’s not my decision.

So my problem is that I don’t know exactly how and where I can make this difference, and I don’t understand everything. For example, GA4 automatically anonymizes IP, but does that mean it won’t reuse anonymized data for commercial purposes? Do I have to remove anonymization it if I want Google Ads to use this data? Are audiences sent to Google Ads the only “commercial use” of Google Analytics data?

These are random questions among many I have, I don’t expect an answer for each one of them, I just don’t understand how Google Analytics uses data commercially, and how to tell it “use this one for commercial purposes but keep this one for analytics only”.

My other option is to use Google Analytics for commercial purposes only, and another tool for analytics purposes (some tools don’t need user consent for analytics) but I’d rather have only one tool.

digital – Does advertising your photography services mean all photos on your portfolio are classed as commercial?

TL;DRWould photographs that I’ve captured and displayed on my personal photography website be considered commercial if I’m not selling them? I would purely be selling my general photography services, or other photos that I know I can sell without any concerns for permission.

I’m currently building a photography site showing photos I’ve taken. I would not be selling them for purchase – they’re purely to demonstrate the composition style I like and the types of photographs I’ve previously captured. But I want the site to be used as a way for people to pay for my services (e.g they wanted to use me in the future for their own personal shoots…)

If I had a photo I’d previously taken (e.g such as in a museum, and the museum requires permission for commercial still shots), would placing that photo on my site be classed as commercial, even if I’m not selling it?

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It is a cloud based video creation and editing software, perfect for creating e-learning online courses, training videos and marketing videos In Any Language. It comes loaded with a huge library of media assets to make your video creation workflow simple and seamless.Features:
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Whatsapp crashes on commercial chat

When I start a conversation against a commercial phone, whatsapp crashes.

I can briefly see the profile picture of the contact, but it crashes beford I can start writing anything

I can see contact’s information, like address and map location, but no chat.

Tried even wiping data

licensing – Can I use Node.js and Angular for building a commercial website?

I plan to build a commercial website in Angular 5. Can I do so without needing to pay anyone anything?

It looks like the node.js license consists of a lot of other components and each of them has their own set of paragraphs. Do I need to list any licenses on my website to give credit to the developers?

I tried to go through the license agreements but did not get very far before I started to not understand most of the jargon.

licensing – Can I use a creative common licensed CC BY 4.0 model in a commercial indie game?

I am not a lawyer and this is not legal advice. What we can help you with here are the game parts of making a game. For aspects relating to law, you should always consult a lawyer.

What I’ll do here is simply read to you the text of the page you’ve already linked, which contains every piece of information you need.

Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

“Indie game” is included in “any medium or format”

Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.

Building a game that includes this asset is “building upon the material,” and “any purpose, even commercially” means you have permission to sell the result.

Attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

So you can’t put a licence on your game that forbids players from using the keyboard model in their own projects. (You probably weren’t going to anyway)

There are tooltips on the page that clarify how to give appropriate credit:

If supplied, you must provide the name of the creator and attribution parties, a copyright notice, a disclaimer notice, and a link to the material.

Here, you have the name of the creator, Oscar Herry, and a link to the material, so you would be expected to make those available alongside your work that builds on this asset – like in the credits screen of your game. This would also be the place to mention whether you modified the asset, like changing the material or textures to work with your game’s style.

copyright – Can I use 3d models I have created in Hexagon made by Daz 3d in commercial games?

The information I could find about the Daz3d Standard License Agreement states:

Whenever you purchase 3D Content from Daz, it comes with certain
rights that allow you to use that content. Some of those rights
include the ability to:

  • Render Images
  • Render Videos
  • Render HDRIs> and/or Virtual Reality (VR) scenes

Any of these that you produce and
render out are completely owned by you, so you can use them
commercially, modify them, sell them, or promote them, as protected by
the End User License Agreement (EULA). This is because the end product
is a render (your individual artwork) of the 3D Model, as opposed to
the actual 3D Content.

When you should get an Interactive License:

Certain applications of models from Daz 3D require an Interactive
License if you want to use that product in a particular way. Any app,
game, or video game where the model changes depending on what a user
does requires an Interactive License (example: if the 3D Model moves,
bends, or walks based on an action the user of that app or game
makes).

In general terms, it sounds like if you generated your meshes completely on your own, you should be in the clear to use them commercially. That said, this is not legal advice & you should consult a qualified legal professional.

Also, the information above doesn’t include anything about textures / materials. I suspect the situation is similar – if you’re using things you developed yourself, you’re probably fine. If you’re using materials from their marketplace, you’ll need to check those rights seperately.