You likely can use your Visa debit card in foreign countries, but you should call your bank (or use their website) to notify them that you will be using it in other countries. Otherwise they may automatically block it.
You can also use an Indian ATM card in Indonesia, if it supports a compatible network (look at the card for icons on the back like “Plus” or “Maestro”). But only some ATMs support some networks, so this may be a hassle.
Or you could bring Indian currency directly to Indonesia and change it at a money changer in any city (during business hours only). This will probably get you a better rate than changing to USD at home then from USD to Indonesian currency in Indonesia.
If the amount is less than 1 lakh, it is probably not worth thinking too hard about what is the most efficient way, and just use the most convenient.