There are many myths about the players who, as if they were playing professionally before the publication of the basic strategy for the game of a package by the Americans Cantey, McDermott, Maisel and Baldwin in 1958. But everything that was before them remains a legend. The four statisticians made their calculations with the help of a manual calculator. However, it was its publication in the American Journal of the American Statistical Association that caused a lot of excitement among players and statisticians, and blackjack was considered a game that a common player could probably win. Encouraged by the popularity of the article in the magazine, copied and memorized by many players, the creators published a book "Winning Blackjack". Today this book is a scarce edition and enriches the home library of many professional players.
In 1962, Edward Thorp, this time using computer technologies, calculates and publishes in his book Beat The Dealer not only the basic strategy of playing but also card counting. Thorp states that blackjack differs from roulette, dice and other games of luck, the outcome of each hand in blackjack depends on the previous deal: it really matters which cards were removed from the game and which ones remained in the package. Most of the things calculated by Thorp are still accurate, but all serious modern players should read this book just for historical interest.
The Thorp system called the "10-count system" was intended for a package game that enjoyed great success at all Nevada casinos. It was extremely difficult to learn, so most of the players gave up. However, Nevada casinos restricted some rules, for example, doubling only 11 points. The media told everyone, and Thorp with his book became known throughout the world and casinos that were disadvantaged had to return the above rules. Realizing that, in such circumstances, the crowd card counters would be trying to beat the house, the operators of the gambling houses introduced two procedures: shuffle after removing the clipping card and multi-package games.
Thorp's systems were very difficult to use in practice. But for the computer conference in Las Vegas in 1963, the game would remain at the same level. On a whim, the conference organizers decided to include a panel session on "Use of computers in games of chance and skill." It was only a whim of the organizers to include a "Use of computers in gambling and skill" section. Thorp was appointed as President of the Panel and experts in several casino games, including blackjack, roulette and baccarat. The room was filled and filled with computer players. Hundreds of conference attendees were pressing and pushing to enter the room.
The crowd, of course, had been drawn to Thorp. They expected revelations about the game and anticipated using their wisdom imparted immediately after the session to kill at the blackjack tables.
After one or two more presentations that primarily corrected and modified the Thorp system, he introduced himself to Harvey Dubner. He described the approach. Dubner kept a count of the remaining high cards (10, J, Q, K, A) and the low cards (2,3,4,5,6) while playing the cards and divided their difference between the total cards that There were still to play. He called the result the high-low ratio. His presentation was enthusiastically received by the crowd in the standing room and received applause at the conclusion. Here, finally, many said, it is a practical system, which can actually be used in the real world of casino gambling. Thorp incorporated the "high-low" system in the second edition of Beat the Dealer published in 1966 and since then more than 100 professional books on blackjack, computer games, hidden computers, random tracking and sleepless nights for casino titles throughout the world.