linux boot error – black screen with blinking cursor – read cache enabled write cache enabled doesn’t support dpo or fua

Im new to linux. I have an old pc that used to run windows 7 ultimate. one day, while booting it froze at the loading logo. Tried many methods but didnt solve the boot problem. So i thought this would be a nice time to try out linux. I created a linux lite 5.2 64bit booable drive. I open boot menu and chose usd drive and a menu opened where i can choose to live boot, live boot safe mode, install, mem test and stuffs like that. when i live boot i got black screen with cursor. same happened when i chose to directly install it. so i chose safe mode and it booted but i cant connect to internet, the icons were large and resolution was reduced. somehow managed to install linuxlite 5.2 by formating the harddrive( it was given as an option in installation process). when i removed the usb and booted from hard dive i got the black screen with cursor blinking. SO i googled i came across a most common and frequent solution. that is to press “e” and type “nomodest” and erase ” quick splash” to see whats going on under the hood i guess. not sure what it is. when i did that, the boot process halted with this line ” read cache enabled, write cache enabled, doesn’t support dpo or fua”. i tried the nomodeset on live boot and it stopped booting at the same line. i tried different distros (ubuntu 20.04,10.04, lubuntu 16,18,20.04, linuxmint, linux lite 4.2, peppermint, lxle, fedora). I can’t even live boot in any other distros ( remember i was able to boot linux lite live in usb only in safe mode).

Hardware specs:

intel pentium dual core e5700 3ghz,

ASrock g41m-vs3

2gb ram

500gb hdd seagate

in short its a 11 year old potato pc.

whatever i do, i end with this one line and i cant find any solution.

read cache enabled, write cache enabled, doesnt support DPO or FUA.

grub menu i guess not sure

the cmd line i got when i preesed “e”

the error i got

How can I stop the Unity Video Player on WebGL from starting each video with a frame of all black?

I’m working on a system to seamlessly reconstruct and play numerous segments of a continuous video stream by playing one segment on the active Video Player while loading the next on the hidden, waiting Video Player—and swapping between them when the active segment is done playing.

Although it’s not necessary to see the code for this, I included it below just in case:

public class VideoController : MonoBehaviour
    (SerializeField) private VideoPlayer activePlayer;
    (SerializeField) private VideoPlayer waitingPlayer;
    // The waiting player starts off invisible.

    private Queue<string> _segmentUrls;
    private bool _videoIsPlaying;

    private bool NextSegmentExists => _segmentUrls.Count >= 1;

    private void Awake()
        // Initialize fields.
        _segmentUrls = new Queue<string>();

        // Subscribe to events.
        // VideoPlayer.Prepare() doesn't seem to work in WebGL. The workaround is to call
        // Play() instead and set the players to pause once the track is finished preparing.
        activePlayer.prepareCompleted += source =>
        waitingPlayer.prepareCompleted += source =>
        activePlayer.loopPointReached += SwitchVideoPlayer;
        waitingPlayer.loopPointReached += SwitchVideoPlayer;

    public void EnqueueSegment(string segmentUrl)

        if (!_videoIsPlaying)
        else if (!waitingPlayer.isPrepared)

    private IEnumerator StartPlayback()
        // Give the Video Player a second to finish preparing the segment for playback.
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);

        SwitchVideoPlayer(lastPlayer: activePlayer);
        _videoIsPlaying = true;

    private void PrepareNextSegmentOnWaitingPlayer()
        var segmentUrl = _segmentUrls.Dequeue();
        waitingPlayer.url = segmentUrl;

    private void SwitchVideoPlayer(VideoPlayer lastPlayer)
        activePlayer = waitingPlayer;

        waitingPlayer = lastPlayer;
        if (activePlayer.isPrepared)
            _videoIsPlaying = false;

        if (NextSegmentExists)

When a Video Player begins playing, the first frame or two is just a black screen. As a result, when a segment finishes playing and it’s time to swap the active and waiting players, there’s a momentary black “blink” on the screen.


Below is a GIF of the issue:

Blinking Demo

Each blink corresponds to swapping Video Players.

(Not to be confused, the video player is showing a recording of a Unity project.)

When a Video Player is done preparing the new segment for playback, I have it advance two frames, so it picks off right where the old segment ended and transitions perfectly smoothly.

This is done by changing the callback for VideoPlayer.prepareCompleted as follows:

activePlayer.prepareCompleted += source =>
waitingPlayer.prepareCompleted += source =>
// Experimentation found that two calls to StepForward() are necessary.

Why It Doesn’t Work

It works on Windows, but testing it on the WebGL build—my primary build target—throws an exception telling me VideoPlayer.StepForward() is not supported on WebGL.

I tried the equivalent of calling StepForward() by setting the current time of the Video Player to a value equal to 2 / framerate, where the “2” stands for two frames.

Why It Doesn’t Work

It works on Windows, and it seems adjusting the time value works on WebGL, too—at least for values equal to or less than 0.5 seconds. However, on WebGL, the black blink persists despite the time-skip.

I tried the same approach as in #2, but by directly adjusting the current frame of the Video Player when preparing the segment for the waiting player.

Why It Doesn’t Work

For the same exact reason as in #2. 😫

Why does the Video Player start off with black frames on WebGL no matter what, and how can I avoid that?

OpenGL 2D texture lookup returns zero (black)

I am trying to use a 2D texture as a lookup table for pre-computed values. In each case I set all values of the texture to 0.5 for testing.

When I use a 1D texture, it works and I get 0.5:

uniform sampler1D dens;
  return texture(dens, height01).r;

When I use a 2D texture however, I get 0.0:

uniform sampler2D dep;
  return texture(dep, vec2(height01, cos_angle01)).r;

I have tried setting cos_angle01 to 0.5. I also tried visualising height01.

Here are the initialisations of the textures (implemented in Clojure):

(def size 8)
(def dens (float-array (repeat size 0.5)))
(def dep (float-array (repeat (* size size) 0.5)) )

(def dens-texture (GL11/glGenTextures))
(GL13/glActiveTexture GL13/GL_TEXTURE0)
(GL11/glBindTexture GL11/GL_TEXTURE_1D dens-texture)
(GL20/glUniform1i (GL20/glGetUniformLocation program "dens") 0)
(GL11/glTexImage1D GL11/GL_TEXTURE_1D 0 GL30/GL_R32F size 0 GL11/GL_RED GL11/GL_FLOAT (make-float-buffer dens))

(def dep-texture (GL11/glGenTextures))
(GL13/glActiveTexture GL13/GL_TEXTURE1)
(GL11/glBindTexture GL11/GL_TEXTURE_2D dep-texture)
(GL20/glUniform1i (GL20/glGetUniformLocation program "dep") 1)
(GL11/glTexImage2D GL11/GL_TEXTURE_2D 0 GL30/GL_R32F size size 0 GL11/GL_RED GL11/GL_FLOAT (make-float-buffer dep))

display – Ubuntu Dual Monitor problem black screen second monitor

the first monitor display images and the second one is black? they show both active but one refuse to display anything? any screen shoot is showing that the second monitor is working and don’t give my the crap that the monitor is broken because is working perfect in Windows as dual monitor setup. and every time i try to open setting is going on the second monitor as well so i cant change any setting since i cant see anything on that monitor

graphic card R9 380X i have tryed everything i can find online and is still not working. new to linux and a bit angry since i expect a dual monitor setup to work from the start not to spend a lot of time fixing the problem


Black and White Films

Do you like to watch the old black and white films? If they’ve been colorized do you still like them?

plotting – Is the default color for axis label black in `RegionPlot`?

I had no suspect that the default color for axis label and ticks would be black. However, after exporting an image to pdf, it seems that these colors are not black for me. Indeed, by checking the color with mspaint, the RGB value is (102,102,102).

The following is the code used to generate a plot:

cm = 72/2.54;
r = RegionPlot(x^2 + y^2 < 1, {x, -1, 1}, {y, -1, 1}, Frame -> True, 
  PlotRange -> {{-1, 1}, {-1, 1}}, FrameLabel -> {x, y})
Export("test1.pdf", Show(r, ImageSize -> 7 cm))

The following is the part of the resulting plot that I magnified:

enter image description here

It does not seem as the real black. Is it the expected behavior? How can I make the color “true” black, with RGB (255,255,255)?

Beware Black Hat Cookie Stuffing Affiliate Marketing

Cookie MonsterHey, you just browsed my site
And this is a crazy
Here’s a cookie you didn’t ask for
So make me some money maybe!

— Cookie Monster, Share It Maybe (sort of)

In the LowEnd hosting world, many providers run affiliate programs, which are a completely legitimate marketing method.  The way it works is that ExampleHost provides an affiliate code to Joe Marketer.  Joe Marketer then shares the link, asking uses to use that link or code when signing up with ExampleHost.  If Rita Random signs up, she pays the normal price to ExampleHost and ExampleHost pays a small commission to Joe Marketer in thanks for his advertising assistance.

Many marketers run sites in which they provide reviews and advice, and all links use affiliate codes.  There is sometimes a conflict of interest – the host that pays the fattest commission sometimes tends to get the biggest promotion.  On many sites (such as LowEndTalk), using affiliate codes when posting links is either forbidden or must be explicitly stated as such, to prevent spamming.

While these are all “white hat” techniques, there are also less ethnical techniques for making money from affiliate marketing.  Chief among them is cookie stuffing.

You probably know what HTTP cookies are: small files that are placed on a user’s computer in order to facilitate stateful information, such as identification, authentication, and tracking.  While cookies are controversial (as evidenced by those noxious “we use cookies” banners everyone clicks on and ignores), they have been part of the web landscape since 1994.

Cookie stuffing occurs when a user visits web site and receives a third party cookie, usually without the user being aware of it.

For example, imagine Rita Random visits, run by Bernie Blackhat.  The site shotguns dozens (or hundreds, potentially thousands) of cookies to her computer, including one indicating that she’s following an ExampleHost affiliate link, even though she’s not.  Of course, the web site doesn’t need to be a hosting review site – it could be have pottery class information, a parasailing directory, candle scent recipes, or anything.  Later, when Rita browses to ExampleHost, the affiliate cookie is still on her system and Bernie gets the affiliate commission, even though he provided no link or other legitimate advertising in the cycle.

It’s worth noting that this form of fraud has been prosecuted in the past, and those involved have gone to prison and paid fines.

The easiest way to defeat cookie stuffers is to refuse third-party cookies.  If you visit then getting a cookie from makes sense, but why do you need to receive a cookie from  You don’t.  This policy can be turned on in your web browser, and virtually all privacy extensions implement this policy.  Note that this will also eliminate many trackers from watching you on the Internet.  Google Chrome disables third-party cookies in incognito mode and the company has stated that Chrome will disallow all third-party cookies in normal mode by default starting in 2023.

LowEndTalk administrator @FAT32 has recently started publishing a list of cookie-stuffers in the LowEndCommunity, which you can find in this thread.


I’m Andrew, techno polymath and long-time LowEndTalk community Moderator. My technical interests include all things Unix, perl, python, shell scripting, and relational database systems. I enjoy writing technical articles here on LowEndBox to help people get more out of their VPSes.

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I’m Andrew, techno polymath and long-time LowEndTalk community Moderator. My technical interests include all things Unix, perl, python, shell scripting, and relational database systems. I enjoy writing technical articles here on LowEndBox to help people get more out of their VPSes.

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I sell dried mushrooms and black fungus, which region and country needs more?

I sell dried mushrooms and black fungus, which region and country needs more?