network – What is up with IP address? Getting bizarre results

I’m trying to limit my teenage son’s access to certain websites (like Discord) during school hours only. The only solution I’ve found is to use something like They require our public IP.

But while playing with different DNS settings, I’m getting bizarre results for our (dynamic) IP and confused what is causing this.

If I just Google “My IP” I get our true IP.

If I go to any of the “what is my IP” websites (like I get different results, like

In Terminal, curl and other hosts I get the false IP as well.

Changing the DNS server on the Mac results in different results.

nginx – How to display only subdomain and not IP address in address bar

I have a nodejs application running on EC2 instance.
The nodejs application is running on port 7000, and I’m using nginx to listen to port 80 and forward any request to that port (so if someone type: it’s like he types:
This part is good, but now I want to use a subdomain to get to that nodejs application.

So when people type in the address bar: they will be my nodejs application.

I create an A record for that subdomain to point to my IP address, but for some reason when I type my subdomain in the address bar it changes and revealed the IP address I wanted to hide…

What I did wrong or what do I need to change in order to show only my subdomain and don’t reveal the IP address.

Bitcoin Core not showing content of address

Bitcoin core newbie here.
I have an old wallet backed up here, and upon download of the latest blockchain info, importing the wallet, my balance is empty.

Now I do have 3 transactions which I made in 2018, including one on which I transferred all my remaining assets. One of these addresse, upon blockchain explorer verification, indeed contains my asset.

How can I access it via bitcoin core? The wallet was originaly created within Bitcoin Core.
When getting the private key to the address holding my asset, and importing the priv key into an alternative wallet such as electrum, I can’t see the public address holding my assets and not access them either.

Can someone tell me how I can access the content of the public access bound to my private key please?

I spent hours on this already…


vpn – How to send emails with Thunderbird without revealing my internal and external IP address?

I have noticed this issue while using Google’s Gmail with Thunderbird. When I send an email from Gmail’s web front end at my internal and external IP address are not included in the email header.

However, I would like to use Mozilla Thunderbird to send emails from my local machine via Gmail. I logged into Gmail from Thunderbird via the IMAP / SMTP option. But when I send an email with Thunderbird via Gmail, it always includes my internal and external IP address in the email header and therefore exposes / leaks them to the mail’s recipient. I would like to prevent this.

Here is a section of an email header sent by Thunderbird via Gmail:

        by with ESMTPSA id SOME_ID
        (version=TLS1_3 cipher=TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 bits=128/128);
  • INTERNAL_IP is the IP that my computer uses inside my home network behind my router’s NAT
  • EXTERNAL_HOSTNAME is the hostname assigned to me by my ISP
  • EXTERNAL_IP is the IP assigned to me by my ISP

I found these related posts, but they did not really help me:

As far as I know the Received part of the email header (see code snippet above) where my IPs are included is not set by Thunderbird but by Google’s SMTP server. Since I obviously do not have access to Google’s servers, I cannot change their configuration.

My idea is to use a VPN provider (e.g. NordVPN or ExpressVPN) and to route my entire computer’s traffic through the VPN tunnel. Then Google’s SMTP server would not see my IP addresses but the IP address of my VPN provider’s server. Do you think that’s a viable solution? Would there be a higher risk of my emails being marked as spam because the IP of my VPN provider might be blacklisted?

security – Do Discord mod (moderator) and other users have access to our IP address?

We can use Discord on the smartphone and as a web app, but let’s focus on web app since this is a web app forum.

I ran into a mod and another user that seemed to support him that would accuse users, and become rude, argumentative, and defensive. If I swallow it, it might be ok, but if I state that I didn’t do what they accuse me of and talk back, can they revenge by using by IP? Does the mod (moderator) or other users have some way to tell my IP and launch some attacks if they want to?

address – Aren’t the Bitcoin receive addresses the public keys?

No. There are multiple kinds of addresses in common use:

A Pay to Public Key Hash (P2PKH) address, beginning with a 1... uses a Hash160 (Sha256 followed by RipeMD160) of the public key. The public key is not revealed until this output is spent, as the spending transaction will include the public key in its scriptSig.

A Pay to Script Hash (P2SH) address, beginning with a 3... uses the Hash160 of the redeemScript, which is not part of the scriptPubKey. The redeemScript is part of the scriptSig which spends the output.

The hashes of the above two are then encoded using Base58Check to generate the address.

There are also Pay to Witness Public Key Hash (P2WPKH) and Pay to Witness Script Hash (P2WSH) versions, which are for post-segwit transactions where the witness is a separate part of the spending transaction. These both begin with bc1..., with the difference between the two being the length of the hash. These are both encoded using the bech32 encoding to give the final address. The publicKey again, is part of the spending transaction, but is instead included in the extra witness field rather than the scriptSig.

There does exist a legacy P2PK (Pay to Public Key) output type, but this is seldom used. In this, the public key was included directly in the scriptPubKey.

In the others besides P2PK, the public key is not revealed until an output is spent. There is no way to know a public key from the hash alone, as the hash is a one-way function.

ios – How to prevent Messages interpreting the @ symbol as a contact’s name (inside an email address)

With Messages in macOS Big Sur (and iOS 14), you can now ‘mention’ a person’s name using the @ sign. This feature is described in Messages User Guide > Send messages > Use mentions in conversations, and on the Big Sur features page.

That’s all fine and dandy when you’re trying to mention someone’s name. When you’re just trying to enter an email address, it can be a downright nuisance. For example, if you’re trying to enter, and Bob happens to be the name of someone in the chat group, it’ll automatically convert @bob into a shimmery blue capitalised ‘Bob’, and the comment will be directed to Bob.

I cannot find any other mention of this annoying behaviour anywhere. I guess it’s reasonably unlikely for most people to stumble across (where the name of a contact is at the beginning of the domain name) and perhaps Apple didn’t even consider this possibility.

Does anyone know of a way to work around this issue? (If not, I’ll send feedback to Apple.)

How are p2sh address spent

So, I was looking into how P2SH transactions are working and by looking at different blog post and in particular to this answer, I have the following question.

So, let’s take the same transaction:

enter image description here

What I am not getting is how the operation are done.

  • Is the scriptSig executed first?
  • What is checked to be equal to 0b49fe...df1? How is it calculated ?

theming – How do I test for an empty Address webform element?

Using Drupal 9.1.3 : Webform 6.0.0

I have 4 composite address elements in a webform that may or may not be filled, depending on the user’s other selections within the form.

I can use the default email Body format, selecting the checkbox: Exclude empty elements, but this outputs a list of the Element Title, followed by the Element data.

I would like to display the output using twig markup, with a custom title on the left and the element data on the right as below:

Title Data
Address 123 The Street
The Town
County, Post Code

Using the webforms debug submission when testing the form it displays the address: element as null when the form is submitted without any data in the address element of the form.

I have used the code below to check for the null attribute.

{% if webform_token('(webform_submission:values:address)', webform_submission, (), options) == '' %}
  <div>Address Element is EMPTY using the '' test</div>
{% elseif webform_token('(webform_submission:values:address)', webform_submission, (), options) == null %}
  <div>Address Element is EMPTY using the null test</div>
{% else %}
  <div>Address Element is EMPTY</div>
{% endif %}

This always displays ‘Address Element is EMPTY’

If I test other Webform elements that results in a empty string eg. ” when no data is entered, the above twig code works with the correct (webform_submission:values:element) and I can elimate the empty custom Title and element using twig code.

Can BtcPay Server receive payments at .crypto or .eth domain address?

.crypto and .eth domains abbreviate the lengthy addresses of cryptocurrency wallets. Can BtcPay Server be configured to receive payments to these domains rather than the full-length wallet addresses? A link to an example website that does this would help