Spells: Distance, range, dimension evaluation in D & D 3.5 (and 3.0 or PF, if applicable)

I came across this problem lately and I could not find any reference on this topic:

  • How do players visually assess the distance, range and dimensions of:
    • Objects (and their coverage or physical coverage such as, for example, the propagation of the explosion of the fireball when there is a semi-indestructible object within the radius of the explosion)?
    • Spells (especially those of AOE)?
    • Attacks (especially those of AOE)?

Some parts of that can be considered automatic and depend on simple experiences with certain actions taken. For example, I can easily assume that:

  • The ranger or dedicated archers of any kind simply feel that the distance at which they can shoot, even if they try to shoot at full range, feels like something that should have their control separately (no matter how clever you can predict "by appearance" if it is a 999 meter shot or 1001 meters shot when the range limit is 1000 meters, that is literally impossible).

At the same time, I do not think the enraged barbarian can estimate (and apply the impulse changes as needed) the exact extent of his whirlwind attack to hit only the enemies and not the frendlies in a crowded melee fight, There should be some kind of check for that.

Although it is worse for spells. Many people (especially those who play with tables of grids and miniatures instead of the theater of the mind) assume that it is perfectly easy to detonate the fireball in the exact place they want, so that the radius of explosion reaches all enemies and finished 1 nanometer from the friendly character. Although it feels completely unreal and impossible.

So to summarize, I'm looking for answers that:

  • Indicate the rules for the evaluation of Distance, Range and Dimensions in the official books of D & D 3.5 (or 3.0 or PF if applicable) if such rules exist. Is it a random check? Is the verification of related skills? How do you design the difficulty in such verification depending on the situation?
  • Tell me the unofficial rules "generally agreed by majority" that deal with this matter if there are no official rules.
  • Give me a well-described idea of ​​how to deal with that rule style of home problem.