Is it possible to name conditional formatting rules in a Google spreadsheet document?

One possible way to do it, although it is not ideal, is to add a kind of comment to the formula you are trying to use. Let's say the condition you're testing is

= IF ($ A1 = "Incomplete", TRUE)

You can add a "comment" to a Google Sheets formula using the syntax ... + T (N ("Your comment here")) + .... So your previous formula could look like this:

= T (N ("The task is incomplete")) + IF ($ A1 = "Incomplete", TRUE)

This way, all you have to do is click on the formula to see your comment or "name" of the formula.