Illumination: can I get bright details and dark background photos with the phone's camera and basic edition?

Can I get bright details and dark background photos with the phone's camera and basic edition?

Answering the question literally, Do not. The key element of this type of photography is not particular to any camera technology (either a camera phone or a medium format professional camera), nor is it particular to a particular type of postprocessing.

The key feature of this type of photography is Turning on. Specifically, this is an example of discrete lighting. The term is somewhat contradictory, because it refers to the high proportion from lighting the brightest elements of the scene to the darkest elements (usually the background) of the scene.

So, can you achieve this aspect with your phone's camera and subsequent processing? Sure but only if you control the lighting of the subject, some distance from the bottom. With a key light powerful enough, the background doesn't even have to be black: the key light will dominate any light that touches the background. However, to make it easier for you, and probably less expensive, it helps control as many elements of the scene's lighting as possible: strong key light, dark background, gobos to block incident and reflected light.