How does local/remote development server environment work for testing within workplaces?

I am a trainee software engineer and have started working for a small company recently. I have been working on a java project locally on my PC which I pulled from a VCS. I want to test the code where it calls another system to retrieve some data. However, I am unsure as to how this all works in regards to testing in a dev environment. I am WFH and the developers on my team are usually all too busy to answer my questions. I am pretty much left to learn this all by myself with little to no guidance.

I do know we have a remote linux server for dev environment. What I do not understand is how it all works e.g. how it works with loading my code/project to the remote server or can I run the project locally which will in turn be deployed into the remote server? As I do not quite understand how I would be able to work on writing code in the shell without an IDE. I am also new to everything so I am testing if my code has any errors, if all the developers have access to the same remote server then how would I be able to test my code without impacting the other developers work?

Another question, instead of using a remote linux server for development testing, is it possible to set it up so that I am able to run the project locally on my PC instead? I feel I would prefer this route but not sure if it is possible because why do some workplaces use remote server rather than local development testing?

Any help is appreciated!