Let me see if I can put this in bed, although it is not a terribly satisfactory answer.
A Lightroom preset is a collection of settings, so once applied, the preset itself is not necessary (for lightroom) to represent the image. This contrasts with something like the profile of a camera: the profile is used every time the image is rendered, so if you have a custom profile and lose it, the impact of the profile is lost and Lightroom returns to its default value.
In addition, a preset adds or replaces other settings. So, if you process an image with preset1, then preset2, then manual configuration, the result is a mixed group of settings. The setting in preset2 of the same slider will be superimposed on preset 1; of mutually exclusive sliders will have both present.
You can take a picture at any time and save your current settings as a new preset, so you can recreate a preset that way, EXCEPT that will include any changes you made afterwards, for example, if you applied Preset1 and then changed the slider shadow and save it: you will get a different shadow slider. (You can limit what settings are saved, of course). You can use the development history to go back to a point with only the preset, if it was the first thing that was applied.
To further complicate this, once you apply a preset and then make any other changes, the metadata for the preset (that is, what you get if you filter by preset) simply becomes "customized." The only place where I think the act of applying the preset is retained is in the development history, which is accessible to the add-ons and in the history view, but it is not something I can (at least in the vanilla light room ) Sort or select.
So, if your goal is to recreate all your default values, you would first start by seeing if they appear in the metadata filter for the default values. If so, you can find an image that has applied it and without prior or subsequent changes; Saving is developing configurations, done.
For others, you must search the history to find a point at which the development preset was applied, return to that point and save the current development settings. How to know which settings were saved in each preset (that is, what was saved and which ones were excluded), no idea, unless you only know.
Update 6/7/2017: the following answer can also be useful if you want to access the catalog directly: here