geolocation: Can an Android device really connect to Satellite using LocationMethod is set to "Phone only"?

All these years I thought that I would like to obtain the location of the device, the Android phones are connected to the mobile phone towers or nearby Wi-Fi. But recently I found another option in Settings> Location method> "Phone only". Once I set up LocationMethod as "Phone only," I activated "Flight mode" (No wifi and no network.) Then I turned on the location services and opened Google maps and I can find my current location when I'm out of the building.

I did the same inside my house and could not show my current location. So, does my Android device really connect to the satellite to get my location? If so, how can a small, low-power device send and receive signals to a satellite that orbits more than 100 km in height, when it strives to obtain a signal from a mobile telephone tower a few kilometers away? ?