External disk: can not open all the files of an old SSD – Macbook Pro 2018

There was a problem with the operating system on my old hard drive, so I just bought an update. As the operating system was bad, I could not clone the old disk. Now, when I connect my old SDD, it loads well and I can see it, but every file I try to open gives me the error: "The file" Cool picture.png "could not be opened.
It may be corrupted or use a file format that Preview does not recognize. "

I hope desperately that there is a way to correct that problem. I have no problem copying a file from the previous SSD to my new hard drive, but I can not open any of the files.