I can not comment yet, so I have to add an answer.
But basically I want to keep track of what Tally said and say that I have found a strange behavior like this before, and what solved it for me (apart from indexing) was that the filtering had to be in a particular order. (the filter indexed first)
For example, if I filtered first by "column A is not empty", then "column indexed> date", sometimes I would have symptoms like the ones you described, but if I filtered first by "indexed column> date" then "column A does not It is Empty ", it would be happy.
My guess is that because "column A is not empty" is filtered to the threshold above the threshold, before the indexed filter reaches the lower threshold, an error occurs.